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Full text of "The expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido for the suppression of piracy : with extracts from the journal of James Brooke, Esq., of Sarawak"

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,(J'-^<- 



THE 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO 



H. M. S. DIDO 



THE SUPPRESSION OF PIRACY: 



WITH EXTRACTS FROM 

THE JOURNAL OF JAMES BROOKE, ESQ. 

OF SARAWAK, 

(NOW HER MAJESTY'S COMMISSIONER AND CONSUL-GENERAL TO THE 
SULTAN AND INDEPENDENT CHIEFS OF BORNEO.) 



CAPTAIN THE HON. HENRY ^EPPEL, R.N. 

THIRD EDITION. 



ADDITIONAL CHAPTER, COMPRISING RECENT INTELLIGENCE, BY 
WALTER K. KELLY. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 

LONDON": ' ^ 
CHAPMAN AND HALL, 186 STRAND. 

M»GCCXLVII. 



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:<, ■« 



LONDON: 



PB1NTED BY ROB SON, LEVEY, AND FRANKI.YN, 
Great New Stteet, Fetter Lane. 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



CHAPTER I. 

Captain Keppel's voyage in the Dido with Mr. Brooke to' Sa- 
rawak. Chase of three piratical prahus. Boat-expedition. 
Action with the pirates, and capture of a prahu. Arrival at 
Sarawak. Mr. Brooke's reception. Captain Keppel and 
his officers visit the Rajah. The palace and the audience. 
Return royal visit to the Dido. Mr. Brooke's residence 
and household. Dr. Treacher's adventure with one of the 
ladies of Macota's harem. Another boat-affair with the 
pirates, and death of their chief .... Pag* 



CHAPTER II. 

The Rajah's letter to Captain Keppel, and his reply. Pre- 
pares for an expedition against the Sarebus pirates. Plea- 
sure-excursion up the river. The Chinese settlement. 
The Singe mountain. Interior of the residences. Dyak 
festival of Maugut. Relics. Sporting. Return to Sara- 
wak. The expedition against Sarebus. State and number 
of the assailing force. Ascent of the river. Beauty of the 
scenery . . . , 25 

• CHAPTER III. 

Ascent of the river to Paddi. Town taken and burnt. Nar- 
row escape of a reinforcement of friendly Dyaks. Night- 
attack by the pirates. Conference : they submit. Proceed 
against Pakoo. Dyak treatment of dead enemies. De- 
struction of Pakoo, and submission of the pirates. Advance 



284195 

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VI CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 

upon Rembas. The town destroyed : the inhabitants yield. 
Satisfactory effects of the expedition. Death of Dr. Simp- 
son. Triumphant return to Sarawak . . Page 48 

CHAPTER IV. 

Captain Keppel sails for China. Calcutta. The Dido ordered 
to Borneo again. Arrival at Sarawak. Effect of her pre- 
sence at Sarawak. Great improvements visible. Atrocities 
of the Sakarran pirates. Mr. Brooke's letter. Captain 
Sir E. Belcher's previous visit to Sarawak in the Samarang. 
Coal found. Second letter from the Rajah Muda Hassim. 
Expedition against the Sakarran pirates. Patusen de- 
stroyed. Macota remembered, and his retreat ljurnt. 
Further fighting, and advance. Ludicrous midnight alarm. 72 

CHAPTER V. 

Seriff Muller's town sacked. Ascend the river in pursuit of the 
enemy. Gallant exploit of Lieutenant Wade. His death 
and funeral. Interesting anecdote of him. Ascend the Sa- 
karran branch. Native boats hemmed in by pirates, and 
their crews slaughtered to a man. Karangan destroyed. 
Captain Sir E. Belcher arrives in the Samarang's boats. 
Return to Sarawak. New expedition against Seriffs Sahib 
and Jaffer. Macota captured. Flight of Seriff Sahib. 
Conferences. Seriff Jaffer deposed. Mr. Brooke's speech 
in the native tongue. End of the expedition, and return to 
Sarawak. The Dido sails for England .... 99 

CHAPTER VI. 

Later portion of Mr. Brooke's Journal. Departure of Captain 
Keppel, and arrival of Sir E. Belcher. Mr. Brooke proceeds 
with Muda Hassim, in the Samarang, to Borneo. Labuan 
examined. Returns to Sarawak. Visit of Lingire, a Sare- 
bus chief. The Dyaks of Tumma and Bandar Cassim. 
Meets an assembly of Malays and Dyaks. Arrival of 
Lingi, as a deputation from the Sakarran chiefs. The Ma- 
lay character. Excursion up the country. Miserable effects 
of excess in opium-smoking. Picturesque situation of the 
Sow village of Ra-at. Nawang. Feast at Ra-at. Returns 
home. Conferences with Dyak chiefs . . . .125 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. Vll 

CHAPTER VII. 

Mr. Brooke's memorandum on the piracy of the Malayan Ar- 
chipelago. The measures requisite for its suppression, and 
for the consequent extension of British commerce in that 
important locality Page 143 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Arrival of Captain Bethune and Mr. Wise. Mr. Brooke ap- 
pointed her Majesty's Agent in Borneo. Sails for Borneo 
Proper. Muda Hassitn's measures for the suppression of 
piracy. Defied by Seriff Houseman. Audience of the Sul- 
tan, Muda Hassim, and the Pangerans. Visit to Labuan. 
Comparative eligibility of Labuan and Balambangan for 
settlement. Coal discovered in Labuan. Mr. Brooke goes 
to Singapore and visits Admiral Sir T. Cochrane. The 
upas-tree. Proceeds with the Admiral to Borneo Proper. 
Punishment of Pangeran Usop. The battle of Malludu. 
Seriff Houseman obliged to fly. Visit to Balambangan. 
Mr. Brooke parts with the Admiral, and goes to Borneo 
Proper. An attempt of Pangeran Usop defeated. His 
flight, and pursuit by Pangeran Budrudeen. Triumphant 
reception of Mr. Brooke in Borneo. Returns to Sara- 
wak 163 

CHAPTER IX. 

Borneo, its geographical bounds and leading divisions. British 
settlements in 1775. The province of Sarawak formally 
ceded by the Sultan in perpetuity to Mr. Brooke its present 
ruler. General view of the Dyaks, the aborigines of Bor- 
neo. The Dyaks of Sarawak, and adjoining tribes ; their 
past oppression and present position 186 

CHAPTER X. 

Proposed British settlement on the north-west coast of Borneo, 
and occupation of the island of Labuan. Governor Craw- 
ford's opinions thereon 212 

Concluding Observation s (First Edition) .... 227 

Postscript to Second Edition 234 



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Vlll CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 

ADDITIONAL CHAPTER. 

Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane sails for Borneo. Particulars of 
the massacre. Its instigators. Destruction of batteries on 
the river of Bruni. Flight of the Sultan. Unsuccessful pur- 
suit. The people of Bruni favourably disposed to the Eng- 
lish. A proclamation issued by the Admiral. Operations 
against the Illanun pirates. The Sultan pardoned. Captain 
Mundy's interview with him. Formal occupation of Labuan. 
Untoward events. Importance of Labuan. Dutch policy 
in the East. Macassar declared a free port. Mr. Brooke 
appointed Commissioner and Consul-Genera] . Latest news. 238 



APPENDIX. 

I. Treaty between his Britannic Majesty and the King of 
the Netherlands, respecting territory and commerce in 
the East Indies. Signed at London, March 17, 1824 269 
II. Official Letters .283 

III. Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane's Despatches . . 289 

IV. Memoir of Lieutenant Wade 301 . 

V. Memoir of Mr. George Steward 305 

VI. Extracts from the late Mr. Williamson's Journal . . 307 



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VISIT TO BORNEO. 



CHAPTER I. 

Captain Keppel's Voyage in the Dido with Mr. Brooke to Sa- 
rawak. Chase of three piratical prahus. Boat-expedition. 
Action with the pirates, and capture of a prahu. Arrival at 
Sarawak. Mr. Brooke's reception. Captain Keppel and his 
officers visit the Rajah. The palace and the audience. Re- 
turn royal visit to the Dido. Mr. Brooke's residence and 
household. Dr. Treacher's adventure with, one of the ladies 
of Macota's harem. Another boat-affair with the pirates, and 
death of their chief. 

I have now followed Mr. Brooke's journal up to 
the time of our first meeting at Singapore, and his 
accompanying me to Sarawak, and have no re- 
marks of my own to offer that could add in the 
slightest degree to its interest ; happily none such 
are needed. I had not yet seen my friend's journal 
when I arrived at Sarawak, nor was it until some 
time after that I by degrees learned the progress of 
his infant government from its commencement. It 

VOL. II. B 



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2 RICH PRODUCTS OF BORNEO. 

was with unfeigned pleasure I then found that, while 
performing my duty in the suppression of piracy, 
I was, at the same time, rendering the greatest 
assistance and support to an individual in his 
praiseworthy, novel, and important position, 

I had long felt a desire to explore the Island 
of Borneo, which the few travellers who have called 
there describe as not only one of the largest and 
most fertile in the world, but one of the most 
productive in gold and diamonds, and other rich 
minerals and ores ; one from which the finest 
camphor known is brought into merchandise, and 
which is undoubtedly capable of supplying every 
kind of valuable spice, and articles of universal 
traffic and consumption. Yet, with all these capa- 
bilities and inducements to tempt the energetic 
spirit of trade, the internal condition of the 
country, and the dangers which beset its coasts, 
have hitherto prevented the interior from being 
explored by Europeans ; and to prove how little 
we are acquainted even with its shores, I actually 
sailed by the best Admiralty chart eighty miles 
inland, and over the tops of mountains ! 

May 4tth 9 1843. — Passed through the Tambe- 
lans, a beautiful group of between 100 and 150 
small islands. They are very extensive, and but 
thinly inhabited. There is good anchorage near 
some of them ; but we had nothing less than twenty 
fathoms. They are placed so close together that, 
after passing the first, we were to all appearance 



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PIRATES FOUND. 3 

completely land-locked in a magnificent and capa- 
cious harbour. The following morning we an- 
chored off the mouth of the Sambas river, and 
sent the boats away to examine the creeks, islands, 
and rivers along the coast for traces of pirates — 
which were discovered by the remains of their 
fires on different parts, although no clue could be 
obtained as to the direction in which they had 
gone. On the morning of the 8th I again sent 
the pinnace and two cutters, Mr. Partridge, Messrs. 
D'Aeth and Jenkins, with a week's provisions, the 
whole under the command of Lieutenant Wilmot 
Horton, Mr. Brooke kindly offering his assistance, 
which, from his knowledge of the Malay language, 
as well as of the kind of vessels used by the pirates, 
was thankfully accepted. I directed them to pro- 
ceed to the island of Marundum, and, after visit- 
ing the South Natunas, to rejoin the Dido at 
Sarawak. In the mean time I proceeded leisurely 
along the coast, anchoring where convenient, and 
finding regular soundings all the way in from four 
to ten fathoms — weather remarkably fine, and 
water smooth. On the morning of the 9th, on 
rounding Tanjong Datu, we opened suddenly on a 
suspicious-looking boat, which, on making us out, 
ran for a small deep bay formed by Gape Datu 
and the next point to the eastward. Standing a 
little farther on, we discovered a second large boat 
in the offing, which likewise stood in shore; and 
afterwards a third at the bottom of the bay. Prom 



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4 THE PIRATES ESCAPE. . 

the description I had received, I easily made these 
out to be Illanuns, an enterprising tribe of pirates, 
of whose daring adventures I had heard much. 
They inhabit a small cluster of islands off the n.e. 
coast of Borneo, and go out in large fleets every 
year to look for prahus bound to Singapore or 
the Straits ; and, after capturing the vessels, re- 
duce their crews to slavery. It is of a cruel 
nature ; for Mr. Brooke observes ; " Nor is the 
slavery of that mild description which is often 
attributed to the Asiatics ; for these victims are 
bound for months, and crowded in the bottom of 
the pirate-vessels, where they suffer all the mise- 
ries which could be inflicted on board an African 
slaver." Having fairly pinned these worthies into 
a corner, and knowing that the only two small 
boats I had left on board would stand no chance 
with them in pulling, to make sure of my prizes 
I loaded the two foremost guns on each side, and, 
having no proper chart of the coast, proceeded 
under easy sail, feeling my way into the bay with 
the lead. When just within musket-range, I let 
go the anchor, which was no sooner done than the 
three boats commenced making a move. I thought 
at first they were coming alongside to sue for par- 
don and peace : and my astonishment was great 
when I discovered that nothing was farther from 
their intention. One pulled away, close in shore, 
to the eastward, and the other two to the west- 
ward. They were rowed by about forty oars each, 



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THE PIRATES ESCAPE. 5 

and appeared from their swiftness to be flying, 
and that too from under my very nose; and what 
rendered it still more ridiculous and disagreeable, 
owing to a strong ebb-tide, the ship remained ex- 
actly in a position that no gun could be brought 
to bear on either side. The dingy and jolly-boat 
gave chase; but the pirates had the start, and 
it was useless ; for although a few men were seen 
to drop from their oars in consequence of our fire 
of musketry from the forecastle, still their pace 
never slackened ; and when they did come within 
the bearing of our guns, which they were obliged 
to do for a minute or two while rounding the 
points that formed the bay, though our thirty-two 
pound shot fell thickly about their heads, fre- 
quently dashing the spray all over them, not a 
man flinched from his oar* We could not help 
admiring their plan of escape, and the gallant 
manner in which it was effected. I saw that it 
would be quite unavailing to attempt to catch the 
boats that had pulled to windward ; but we lost 
no time in slipping our cable and making all sail 
in chase of the one that had gone to leeward* 
But the " artful dodger" was still too fast for us ; 
we lost sight of him at dusk close off the mouth 
of a river, up which, however, I do not think he 
went ; for our two boats were there very shortly 
after him; and although they searched all night 
and next morning, they could discover no traces 
of the fugitive. Besides, these pirates have no 



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6 ENTER THE SARAWAK. 

friends among the inhabitants of the province of 
Sarawak who would have screened them from us ; 
on the contrary, they would have put them to death 
if once in their power. I certainly never made 
so sure of any thing in my life as of capturing the 
three prahus after I had seen them safe into the 
bottom of the little bay at Tanjong Datu : but 
" there is many a slip between the cup and the lip." 
We returned the following day to pick up the anchor 
and cable, and observed that it was a place well 
adapted as a rendezvous for pirates. The bay is 
studded with rocks ; and to my horror, I found that 
I had run her Majesty's ship Dido inside two that 
were a-wash at low water ! A mountain-stream of 
most delicious water runs into the bay between two 
rocks, and the coast abounds with oysters. 

On the 13th the Dido anchored off Tanjong 
Poe, outside the bar at the entrance of the river 
leading to Mr. Brooke's residence and seat of 
government, at the town of Sarawak, situated 
about twenty-four miles up. At half-tide on the 
following morning we crossed the bar, carrying no 
less than three and a half fathoms, and entered 
the beautiful river of Morotaba, which we ran 
up for the first fifteen miles under all sail, with 
a fresh leading breeze. The Dido was the first 
square-rigged vessel that had ever entered those 
waters. We came-to at the junction river which 
unites the two principal entrances to the Sarawak. 

In the evening our boats returned on board 



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THE BOAT-EXPEDITION. 7 

from their expedition, having reached Sarawak the 
day previous by the western entrance. On leaving 
the Dido, on the morning of the 8th, they pro- 
ceeded to the island of Marundum, a favourite 
rendezvous for pirates, where they came on a fleet 
of the Illanun tribe, who, however, did not give 
them an opportunity of closing ; but cutting their 
sampans adrift, made a precipitate flight, opening 
fire as they ran out on the opposite side of a small 
bay, in which they had been watering and refitting. 
This, of course, led to a very exciting chase, with 
a running fire kept up on both sides ; but the dis- 
tance was too great for the range of the guns on 
either side; and the pirates, who, in addition to 
sailing well, were propelled by from forty to sixty 
oars each, made their escape. It was not until 
nearly hull-down that they (probably out of bra- 
vado) ceased to fire their stern-guns. As they 
went in the direction of the Natunas, our boats 
steered for those islands, and anchored under the 
south-end of one of them. At daylight next morn- 
ing, although in three fathoms water, the pinnace, 
owing to the great rise and fall of tide, grounded 
on a coral reef, and Lieutenant Horton and Mr. 
Brooke proceeded in one of the cutters to recon- 
noitre. As they neared the s.w. point, they were 
met by six prahus, beating their tom-toms as they 
advanced, and making every demonstration of 
fighting. Lieutenant Horton judiciously turned 
to rejoin the other boats ; and the pinnace having 



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8 THE ISSUE. 

fortunately just then floated, he formed his little 
squadron into line abreast, cleared for action, and 
prepared to meet his formidable-looking antago- 
nists. Mr. Brooke, however, whose eye had been 
accustomed to the cut and rig of all the boats in 
these seas, discovered that those advancing were 
not Illanuns, and fancied there must be some mis- 
take. The Natunas people had been trading with 
Sarawak, and he was intimately acquainted with 
a rich and powerful chief who resided on the 
island ; he therefore raised a white flag of truce 
on his spy-glass, and from the bow of the pinnace 
hailed, waved, and made all the signs he could to 
warn them of the danger into which they were 
running ; but a discharge of small-arms was the 
only reply he got. They then detached their three 
smallest vessels inshore, so as to command a cross- 
fire and cut off the retreat of our boats ; and the 
rest advanced, yelling, beating their tom-toms, and 
blazing away with all the confidence of victory, 
their shot cutting through the rigging, and splash- 
ing in the water all round. It was an anxious mo- 
ment for the Dido's little party. Not a word was 
spoken. The only gun of the pinnace was loaded 
with grape and canister, and kept pointed on the 
largest prahu. The men waited with their mus- 
kets in hand, for permission to fire ; but it was 
not until within pistol-range that Lieutenant Hor- 
ton poured into the enemy his well-prepared dose. 
It instantly brought them to a halt ; yet they had 



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DISPOSAL OF THE ENEMY. 9 

the temerity to exchange shots for a few minutes 
longer, when the largest cried for quarter, and the 
other five made for the shore, chased hy the two 
cutters, and keeping up a fire to the last. 

The prize taken possession of hy the pinnace 
proved to he a prahu mounting three hrass guns, 
with a crew of thirty-six men, belonging to the 
Rajah of Bhio, and which had been despatched by 
that chief to collect tribute at and about the Na- 
tunas islands. They had on board ten men killed, 
and eleven (four of them mortally) wounded* 
They affected the greatest astonishment on dis- 
covering that our boats belonged to a British man- 
of-war, and protested that it was all a mistake ; 
that the island had lately been plundered by the 
Illanun pirates, for whom they had taken us ; that 
the rising sun was in their eyes, and that they 
could not make out the colours, &c. Lieutenant 
Horton thinking that their story might possibly 
have some foundation in truth, and taking into 
consideration the severe lesson they had received, 
directed Dr. Simpson, the assistant-surgeon, to 
dress their wounds ; and after admonishing them to 
be more circumspect in future, restored them their 
boat, as well as the others which belonged to the 
island, two of them being a trifle smaller but of the ; 
same armament as the one from Bhio, and the re- 
maining three still smaller, carrying twelve men 
each, armed with spears and muskets. These bad- 
been taken possession of by the cutters after they 



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10 ASCENT OF THE RIVER TO SARAWAK. 

had reached the shore and landed their killed and 
wounded, who were borne away from the beach 
so smartly by the natives, that our people had not 
time to ascertain the number hurt. The surgeon 
went ashore, and dressed the wounds of several of 
them; an act of kindness and civilisation far 
beyond their comprehension. The natives, how- 
ever, appeared to bear us no malice for the injury 
we had inflicted on their countrymen, but loaded 
our boats with fruit, goats, and every thing we 
required. It afforded some amusement to find 
that among the slightly wounded was Mr. Brooke's 
old, wealthy, and respectable friend already alluded 
to, who was not a little ashamed at being recog- 
nised ; but piracy is so inherent in a Malay, that 
few can resist the temptation when a good opportu- 
nity for plunder presents itself. The fact, which I 
afterwards ascertained, was, that they took our boats 
for some coming from a wreck with whatever valu- 
ables they could collect j and their not having seen 
any thing of the ship rather strengthened this 
conjecture ; the excuse they made for continuing 
the fight after they had discovered their mistake 
being, that they expected no quarter. 1 

May 16th. — We proceeded up the river twelve 
miles further into the interior of this interesting 

1 I am happy to say that the Lords of the Admiralty have 
since been pleased to promote Lieut. Wilmot Horton and Mr. W. 
L. Partridge, mate, who commanded the pinnace, for their gal- 
lantry on this occasion. — H. K. 



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mil brooke's reception. 11 

country* and with my friend Mr. Brooke on board, 
approached Sarawak, his seat of government \ in 
the reach before you near which, and off the right 
bank of the river, is a long and dangerous shelf of 
rocks. The deep channel which lies between the 
bank and the rocks is not more than sixty or 
seventy feet wide, and required some little care in 
passing ; but, with the exception of the flying jib- 
boom, which got nipped off in the branch of a mag- 
nificent overhanging tree, we anchored without 
accident in six fathoms water, and greatly aston- 
ished the natives with a royal salute in honour of 
Muda Hassim, the Rajah of Borneo. During the 
whole morning large boats, some carrying as many 
as two hundred people, had been coming down the 
river to hail Mr. Brooke's return ; and one of the 
greatest gratifications I had was in witnessing the 
undisguised delight, mingled with gratitude and 
respect, with which each head man welcomed their 
newly-elected ruler back to his adopted country. 
Although many of the Malay chiefs had every 
reason to expect that in the Dido they saw the 
means by which their misdeeds were to be pun- 
ished, they shewed their confidence in Mr. Brooke 
by bringing their children with them — a sign pecu- 
liar to the Malay. The scene was both novel and 
exciting ; presenting to us, just anchored in a large 
fresh-water river, and surrounded by a densely- 
wooded jungle, the whole surface of the water 
covered with canoes and boats dressed out with 



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12 AUDIENCE OF THE RAJAH. 

their various-coloured silken flags, filled with na- 
tives beating their tom-toms, and playing on their 
wild and not unpleasant-sounding wind-instruments, 
with the occasional discharge of fire-arms. To 
them it must have been equally striking and extra- 
ordinary (as few of them had ever seen any larger 
vessel than their own war-boats, or a European, 
until Mr. Brooke's arrival,) to witness the Dido, 
anchored almost in the centre of their town, her 
mast-heads towering above the highest trees of 
their jungle ; the loud report of her heavy two- 
and-thirty pounder guns, and the running aloft, to 
furl sails, of 150 seamen, in their clean white 
dresses, and with the band playing ; all which 
helped to make an impression that will not easily 
be forgotten at Sarawak. I was anxious that Mr. 
Brooke should land with all the honours due to so 
important a personage, which he accordingly did, 
under a salute. The next business was my visit 
of ceremony to the Bajah, which was great fun, 
though conducted in the most imposing manner. 
The band, and the marines, as a guard, having 
landed, we (the officers) all assembled at Mr. 
Brooke's house, where, having made ourselves as 
formidable as we could with swords and cocked 
hats, we marched in procession to the royal resi- 
dence, his majesty having sent one of his brothers, 
who led me by the hand into his presence. The 
palace was a long low shed, built on piles, to which 
we ascended by a ladder. The audience-chamber 



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rajah's visit to the dido. 13 

was hung with fed and yellow silk curtains, and 
round the back and one side of the platform oc- 
cupied by the Rajah were ranged his ministers, 
warriors, and men-at-arms, bearing spears, swords, 
shields, and other warlike weapons. Opposite to 
them were drawn up our royal marines ; the con- 
trast between the two body-guards being very 
amusing. Muda Hassim is a wretched-looking little 
man ; still there was a courteous and gentle manner 
about him that prepossessed us in his favour, and 
made us feel that we were before an individual who 
had been accustomed to command. We took our 
seats in a semicircle, on chairs provided for the 
occasion, and smoked cigars and drank tea. His 
majesty chewed his sirih-leaf and betel-nut, seated 
with one leg crossed under him, and playing with 
his toes. Very little is ever said during these au~ 
diences ; so we sat staring at one another for half 
an hour with mutual astonishment ; and, after the 
usual compliments of wishing our friendship might 
last as long as the moon, and my having offered 
him the Dido and every thing else that did not 
belong to me in exchange for his house, we took 
our leave. • 

May IQth .This was the day fixed for the 

Rajah's visit to the Dido, abqut which he appeared 
very anxious, although he had seldom been known 
to go beyond his own threshold. For this cere- 
mony all the boats, guns, tom-toms, flags, and popu- 
lation were put in requisition ; and the procession 



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14 THE RAJAH'S VISIT. 

to the ship was a very gorgeous and amusing spec- 
tacle. We received him on board with a royal 
salute. He brought in his train a whole tribe of 
natural brothers. His guards and followers were 
strange enough, and far too numerous to be ad- 
mitted on the Dido's deck ; so that as soon as 
a sufficient number had scrambled on board, the 
sentry had orders to prevent any more from crowd- 
ing in ; but whether in so doing the most import- 
ant personages of the realm were kept out, we did 
not ascertain. One fellow succeeded in obtaining 
a footing with a large yellow silk canopy, a corner 
of which having run into the eye of one of the mid- 
shipmen, the bearer missed his footing, and down 
came the whole concern, — as I was informed, by 
accident! The party assembled in my cabin ; and 
the remarks were few, nor did they manifest great 
astonishment at any thing. In fact, a Malay never 
allows himself to be taken by surprise. I believe, 
however, the Rajah did not think much of my ve- 
racity, when I informed him that this was not the 
largest ship belonging to Her Britannic Majesty, 
and that she had several mounting upwards of 100 
guns; though he admitted that he had seen a 
grander sight than any of his ancestors. There 
was much distress depicted in the royal countenance 
during his visit, which I afterwards ascertained 
was owing to his having been informed that he 
must not spit in my cabin. On leaving the ship, 
whether the cherry-brandy he had taken made him 



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mr. Brooke's residence. 15 

forget the directions he had received, I do not 
know, hut he squirted a mouthful of red betel-nut 
juice over the white deck, and then had the teme- 
rity to hold out his hand to the first lieutenant, 
who hastily applied to him the style (not royal) 
of "a dirty beast," which not understanding, he 
smiled graciously, taking it as some compliment 
peculiar to the English. 

This farce over, I had now some time to look 
about me, and to refit my ship in one of the pret- 
tiest spots on earth, and as unlike a dockyard as 
any thing could be. 

Mr. Brooke's then residence, although equally 
rude in structure with the abodes of the natives, 
was not without its English comforts of sofas, 
chairs, and bedsteads. It was larger than any 
of the others, but being, like them, built on piles, 
we had to mount a ladder to get into it. It was 
situated on the same side of the river (the right 
bank), next to, but rather in the rear of, the 
Rajah's palace, with a clear space of about 150 
yards between the back and the edge of the jungle. 
It was surrounded by palisades and a ditch, form- 
ing a protection to sheep, goats, pigeons, cats, 
poultry, geese, monkeys, dogs, ducks, and occa- 
sionally bullocks. The house consisted of but one 
iioor. A large room in the centre, neatly orna- 
mented with every description of fire-arms, in ad- 
mirable order and ready for use, served as an audi- 
ence and mess-room; and the various apartments 



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16 EVENING ENTERTAINMENTS. 

round it as bed-rooms, most of them comfortably 
furnished with matted floors, easy chairs, pictures, 
and books, with much more taste and attention to 
comfort than bachelors usually display. In one 
corner of the square formed by the palisades were 
the kitchen and offices. The Europeans with Mr. 
Brooke consisted of Mr. Douglas, formerly in the 
navy, a clever young surgeon, and a gentleman of 
the name of Williamson, who, being master of the 
native language, as well as active and intelligent, 
made an excellent prime minister. Besides these 
were two others who came out in the yacht, one an 
old man-of-war's man, who kept the arms in first- 
rate condition, and another worthy character who 
answered to the name of Charlie, and took care of 
the accounts and charge of every thing. These 
were attended by servants of different nations. 
The cooking-establishment was perfect, and the ut- 
most harmony prevailed. The great feeding-time 
was at sun-set, when Mr* Brooke took his seat at 
the head of the table, and all the establishment, 
as in days of yore, seated themselves according to 
their respective grades. This hospitable board was 
open to all the officers of the Dido ; and many a 
jovial evening we spent there. All Mr. Brooke's 
party were characters — all had travelled; and 
never did a minute flag for want of some enter- 
taining anecdote, good story, or song, to pass away 
the time ; and it was while smoking our cigars in 
the evening, that the natives, as well as the Chi- 



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DR. TREACHER'S ADVENTURE. 17 

nese who had hecome settlers, used to drop in, and, 
after creeping up according to their custom, and 
touching the hand of their European Rajah, retire 
to the further end of the room and squat down 
upon their haunches, remain a couple of hours 
without uttering a word, and then creep out again. 
I have seen sixty or seventy of an evening come in 
and make this sort of salaam. All the Malays 
were armed; as it is reckoned an insult for one 
of them' to appear before a Rajah without his kris* 
I could not help remarking the manly indepen- 
dent bearing of the half-savage and nearly naked 
mountain Dyak, compared with the sneaking de- 
portment of the Malay. 

The following little adventure was told me 
during my stay at Sarawak by Dr. Treacher, who 
had lately joined Mr. Brooke, his former medical 
attendant having returned to England. It appears 
that Dr. Treacher received a message by a confiden- 
tial slave, that one of the ladies of Macota's harem 
desired an interview, appointing a secluded spot in 
the jungle as the rendezvous. The doctor, being 
aware of his own good looks, fancied he had made 
a conquest ; and, having got himself up as showily 
as he could, was there at the appointed time. He 
described the poor girl as both young and pretty, 
but with a dignified and determined look, which 
at once convinced him that she was moved to take 
so dangerous a step by some deeper feeling than 
that of a mere fancy for his person. She com- 

vol/ii. c 



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18 ANOTHER BOAT- AFFAIR 

plained of the ill-treatment she had received from 
Macota, and the miserable life she led j and avowed 
that her firm resolve was to destroy (not herself, 
gentle creature! but) him, for which purpose she 
wanted a small portion of arsenic* It was a disap- 
pointment that he could not comply with her re- 
quest : so they parted — he full of pity and love for 
her, and she, in all probability, full of contempt for 
a man who felt for her wrongs, but would not aid 
in the very simple means she had proposed for 
redressing them. 

While at Singapore, Mr. Whitehead had 
kindly offered to allow his yacht, the Emily, a 
schooner of about fifty tons, with a native crew, to 
bring our letters to Borneo, on the arrival at Sin- 
gapore of the mail from England. About the time 
she was expected, I thought it advisable to send a 
boat to cruise in the vicinity of Cape Datu, in case 
of her falling in with any of these piratical gentry. 
The Dido's largest boat, the pinnace, being under 
repair, Mr. Brooke lent a large boat which he had 
had built by the natives at Sarawak, and called the 
Jolly Bachelor. Having fitted her with a brass 
six-pounder long gun, with a volunteer crew, of a 
mate, two midshipmen, six marines, and twelve 
seamen, and a fortnight's provisions, I despatched 
her under the command of the second lieutenant, 
Mr, Hunt; Mr. Douglas, speaking the Malayan 
language, likewise volunteered his services. One 
evening, after they had been about six days absent, 



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WITH THE PIRATES. 19 

while we were at dinner, young Douglas made his 
appearance, bearing in his arms the captured 
colours of an Illanun pirate. It appears that the 
day after they had got outside, they observed three 
boats a long way in the offing, to which they gave 
chase ; but soon lost sight of them, owing to their 
superior sailing. They, however, appeared a se- 
cond and a third time after dark, but without the 
Jolly Bachelor being able to get near them ; and 
it now being late, and the crew both fatigued and 
hungry, they pulled in shore, lighted a fire, cooked 
their provisions, and then hauled the boat out to 
her grapnel near some rocks for the night ; lying 
down to rest with their arms by their sides, and 
muskets round the mast ready loaded. Having 
also placed sentries and look-out men, and appoint- 
ed an officer of the watch, they one and all (sen- 
tries included, I suppose), owing to the fatigues of 
the day, fell asleep! At about three o'clock the 
following morning, the moon being just about to 
rise, Lieut. Hunt happening to awake, observed 
a savage brandishing a kris, and performing his 
war-dance on the bit of deck, in an ecstasy of de- 
light, thinking in all probability of the ease with 
which he had got possession of a fine trading-boat, 
and calculating the cargo of slaves he had to sell, 
but little dreaming of the hornets' nest into which 
he had fallen. Lieut. Hunt's round face meeting 
the light of the rising moon, without a turban sur- 
mounting it, was the first notice the pirate had of 



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20 THE FIGHT. 

his mistake. He immediately plunged overboard ; 
and before Lieut. Hunt had sufficiently recovered 
his astonishment to know whether he was dreaming 
or not, or to rouse his crew up, a discharge from 
three or four cannon within a few yards, and the 
cutting through the rigging by the various missiles 
with which the guns were loaded, soon convinced 
him there was no mistake. It was as well the men 
were still lying down when this discharge took 
place, as not one of them was hurt ; but on jumping 
to their legs, they found themselves closely pressed 
by two large war-prahus, one on each bow. To 
return the fire, cut the cable, man the oars, and 
back astern to gain room, was the work of a 
minute j but now came the tug of war ; it was a 
case of life and death. Our men fought as British 
sailors ought to do ; quarter was not expected on 
either side ; and the quick and deadly aim of the 
marines prevented the pirates from reloading their 
guns. The Illanun prahus are built with strong 
bulwarks or barricades, grape-shot proof, across 
the fore part of the boat, through which ports are 
formed for working the guns ; these bulwarks had 
to be cut away by round shot from the Jolly Ba- 
chelor before the musketry could bear effectually. 
This done, the grape and canister told with fear- 
ful execution. In the mean time, the prahus had 
been pressing forward to board, while the Jolly 
Bachelor backed astern ; but as soon as this service 
was achieved, our men dropped their oars, and 



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THE ISSUE. 21 

seizing their muskets, dashed on: the work was 
sharp hut short, and the slaughter great. While 
one pirate-boat was sinking, and an effort made to 
secure her, the other effected her escape by round- 
ing the point of rocks, where a third and larger 
prahu, hitherto unseen, came to her assistance, and 
putting fresh hands on board, and taking her in 
tow, succeeded in getting off, although chased by 
the Jolly Bachelor, after setting fire to the crippled 
prize, which blew up and sunk before the con- 
querors got back to the scene of action. While 
there, a man swam off to them from the shore, who 
proved to be one of the captured slaves, and had 
made his escape by leaping overboard during the 
fight. The three prahus were the same IUanun 
pirates we had so suddenly come upon off Cape 
Datu in the Dido, and they belonged to the same 
fleet that Lieutenant Horton had chased off the 
island of Marundum The slave-prisoner had been 
seized, with a companion, in a small fishing-canoe 
off Borneo Proper ; his companion suffered in the 
general slaughter. The sight that presented itself 
on our people boarding the captured boat must 
indeed have been a frightful one ; none of the 
pirates waited on board for even the chance of 
receiving either quarter or mercy, but all those 
capable of moving had thrown themselves into the 
water. In addition to the killed, some lying across 
the thwarts with their oars in their hands, at the 
bottom of the prahu, in which there was about 



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22 SUBSEQUENT INFORMATION. 

three feet of blood and water, were seen protruding 
the mangled remains of eighteen or twenty bodies. 
During my last expedition I fell in with a slave 
belonging to a Malay chief, one of our allies, who 
informed us that he likewise had been a prisoner 
and pulled an oar in one of the two prahus that at- 
tacked the Jolly Bachelor j that none of the crew 
of the captured prahu reached the shore alive, with 
the exception of the lad that swam off to our 
people ; and that there were so few who survived 
in the second prahu, that having separated from 
their consort during the night, the slaves, fifteen 
in number, rose, and put to death the remaining 
pirates, and then ran the vessel into the first river 
they reached, which -proved to be the Kaleka, 
where they were seized, and became the property 
of the governing Datu ; and my informant was 
again sold to my companion while on a visit to his 
friend the Datu. Each of the attacking prahus 
had between fifty and sixty men, including slaves, 
and the larger one between ninety and a hundred. 
The result might have been very different to our 
gallant but dosy Jolly Bachelors. 

I have already mentioned the slaughter com- 
mitted by the fire of the pinnace, under Lieutenant 
Horton, into the largest Malay prahu ; and the ac- 
count given of the scene which presented itself on 
the deck of the defeated pirate, when taken posses- 
sion of, affords a striking proof of the character of 
these fierce rovers ; resembling greatly what we 



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DEATH OF THE, PIRATE CHIEF. 23 

read of the Norsemen and Scandinavians of early 
ages. Among the mortally wounded lay the young 
commander of the prahu, one of the most noble 
forms of the human race ; his countenance hand- 
some as the hero of oriental romance, and his 
whole bearing wonderfully impressive and touch- 
ing. He was shot in front and through the lungs, 
and his last moments were rapidly approaching. 
He endeavoured to speak, but the blood gushed 
from his mouth with the voice he vainly essayed to 
utter in words. Again and again he tried, but 
again and again the vital fluid, drowned the dying 
effort. He looked as if he had something of im- 
portance which he desired to communicate, and a 
shade of disappointment and regret passed over 
his brow when he felt that every essay was un- 
availing, and that his manly strength and daring 
spirit were dissolving into the dark night of 
death. The pitying conquerors raised him gently 
up, and he was seated in comparative ease, for 
the welling-out of the blood was less distressing ; 
but the end speedily came : he folded his arms 
heroically across his wounded breast, fixed his 
eyes upon the British seamen around, and casting 
one last glance at the ocean — the theatre of his 
daring exploits, on which he had so often fought 
and triumphed — expired without a sigh. 

The spectators, though not unused to tragical 
and sanguinary sights, were unanimous in speaking 
of the death of the pirate chief as the most affect- 



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24 DEATH OF THE PIRATE CHIEF. 

ing spectacle they had evefr witnessed. A sculptor 
might have carved him as an Antinous in the 
mortal agonies of a Dying Gladiator. 

The leaders of the piratical prahus are some- 
times poetically addressed hy their followers as 
Matari, i. e. the sun, or Bulan, the moon ; and 
from his superiority in every respect, physical and 
intellectual, the chief whose course was here so 
fatally closed seemed to he worthy of either celes- 
tial name. 



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CHAPTER II. 

The Rajah's letter to Captain Keppel, and his reply. Prepares 
for an expedition against the Sarebus pirates. Pleasure ex- 
cursion up the river. The Chinese settlement. The Singe 
mountain. Interior of the residences. Dyak festival of 
Maugut. Relics. Sporting. Return to Sarawak. The ex- 
pedition against Sarebus. State and number of the assailing 
force. Ascent of the river. Beauty of the scenery. 

May 21st. — I received intimation that the Rajah 
had written a letter, and wished me to appoint a 
time and place, that it might he presented in due 
form. Accordingly I attended in Mr. Brooke's 
hall of audience on the following day, where I 
found collected all the chiefs, and a crowd of 
natives, many of them having already heen in- 
formed that the said letter was a requisition for 
me to assist in putting down the hordes of pirates 
who had so long infested the coast. I helieve many 
of those present, especially the Borneons, to have 
heen casually concerned, if not deeply implicated, 
in some of their transactions. After I had taken 
my seat with Mr. Brooke at the head of the table, 
the Rajah's sword-bearers entered, clearing the 
way for the huge yellow canopy, under the shade of 
which, on a large brass tray, and carefully sewn up 



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26 THE rajah's letter. 

in a yellow silk bag, was the letter, from which it 
was removed, and placed in my hands by the Pan- 
geran Budrudeen. I opened the bag with my 
knife, and giving it to an interpreter, he read it 
aloud in the Malayan tongue. It was variously 
received by the audience, many of whose counte- 
nances were far from prepossessing. 

The following is a copy of the letter, to which 
was affixed the Rajah's seal : 

"This friendly epistle, having its source in a 
pure mind, comes from Rajah Muda Hassim, next 
in succession to the royal throne of the kingdom of 
Borneo, and who now holds his court at the trading 
city of Sarawak, to our friend Henry Keppel, head 
captain of the war-frigate belonging to her Bri- 
tannic Majesty, renowned throughout all countries, 
— who is valiant and discreet, and endowed with a 
mild and gentle nature : 

"This is to inform our friend that there are 
certain great pirates, of the people of Sarebus and 
Sakarran, in our neighbourhood, seizing goods and 
murdering people on the high seas. They have 
more than three hundred war-prahus, and extend 
their ravages even to Banjarmassim ; they are not 
subject to the government of Bruni (Borneo) ; they 
take much plunder from vessels trading between 
Singapore and the good people of our country. 

"It would be a great service if our friend 
would adopt measures to put an end to these pira- 
tical outrages. 



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THE REPLY. 27 

" We can present nothing better to our friend 
than a kris, such as it is. 

" 20th day of Rabial Akhir, 1257." 

To which I sent the following reply : 
" Captain Keppel begs to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of the Eajah Muda Hassim's letter, represent- 
ing that the Dyaks of Sarebus and Sakarran are 
the pirates who infest the coast of Borneo, and do 
material damage to the trade of Singapore. 

" Captain Keppel will take speedy measures to 
suppress these and all other pirates, and feels con- 
fident that her Britannic Majesty will be glad to 
learn that the Rajah Muda Hassim is ready to co- 
operate in so laudable an undertaking." 

Not being prepared for the oriental fashion of 
exchanging presents, I had nothing to offer to his 
Rajah-ship ; but I found out afterwards that Mr. 
Brooke had (unknown to me) sent him a clock 
in my name. The royal kris was handsome, the 
handle of carved ivory, with a good deal of gold 
about it. 

This information about the pirates gave me 
good ground to make a beginning ; and having 
arranged with Mr. Brooke to obtain all necessary 
intelligence relative to their position, strength, and 
numbers, 1 I determined on attacking them in their 

J Piratical habits are so interwoven with the character of 
these Sarebus people, that the capture at sea of a few prahus 
would have but small effect in curing the evil ; whilst a harassing 



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28 MR, BROOKE JOINS THE EXPEDITION. 

strongholds, commencing with the Sarebus, who, 
from all accounts, were by far the most strongly 
fortified, Mr. Brooke accepted my invitation to 
accompany us, as well as to supply a native force 
of about three hundred men, who, should we suc- 
ceed in the destruction of the pirate forts, would 
be useful in the jungle. Mr. Brooke's going to 
join personally in a war against (in the opinion of 
the Datus) such formidable opponents as the Sa- 
karran and Sarebus pirates, — who had never yet 
been conquered, although repeatedly attacked by 
the united forces of the surrounding Kajahs, — was 
strongly opposed by the chiefs. On his informing 
them that he should go, but leaving it optional 
whether they would accompany him or not, their 
simple reply was, " What is the use of our remain- 
ing ? If you die, we die ; and if you live, we live : 
we will go with you." Preparations for the expe- 
dition were accordingly commenced. 

No place could have suited us better for a re- 
fit. Within a few yards of the ship was a Chinese 
workshop. Our boats were hauled up to repair 
under sheds, and we drew our fresh water along- 
side ; and while the Dido was at Sarawak, Mr. 

duty is encountered, the result is only to drive the pirates from 
one cruising- ground to another : but, on the contrary, a system 
which joins conciliation with severity, aiming at the correction 
of the native character as well as the suppression of piracy, and 
carrying punishment to the doors of the offenders, is the only 
one which can effectually eradicate an evil almost as disgraceful 
to those who permit it as to the native states engaged in it. 



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PLEASURE-EXCURSION. 29 

Jago, the carpenter, built a very beautiful thirty- 
foot gig, having cut the plank up in the China- 
man's sawpit. 

While these works were in progress, I accom- 
panied Mr. Brooke up the river. The Koyalist 
having been despatched to Singapore with our let- 
ters, we started on our pleasure-excursion. With 
the officers from the Dido and the chiefs, who al- 
ways accompany the "Tuan Besar," we mustered 
about sixty persons ; and with our guns, walking- 
sticks, cigars, and a well-supplied commissariat, 
determined to enjoy ourselves. 

We were not long in making the acquaintances 
of the chiefs. Men who had formerly rebelled, 
who were conquered by Mr. Brooke, and had their 
(forfeited) lives saved, their families restored to 
them, and themselves finally reinstated in the 
offices they had previously held — these men were 
very naturally and faithfully attached. Our young 
gentlemen found their Malayan names difficult to 
remember, so that the gallant old Patingi Ali was 
seldom called any other name than that of " Three- 
Fingered Jack," from his having lost part of his 
right hand ; the Tumangong was spoken of as the 
" Father of Hopeful," from one of his children, a 
fine little fellow, whom he was foolishly attached 
to, and seldom seen without. 

Der Macota, who had some time before re- 
ceived the appellation of " the Serpent," had, ever 
since he got his oyders to quit, some six months 



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30 THE CHINESE SETTLEMENT. 

before, been preparing his boats, but which were 
ready in an incredibly short time after the Dido's 
arrival ; and thus Mr. Brooke got rid of that most 
intriguing and troublesome rascal ; a person who 
had, from the commencement, been trying to sup- 
plant and ruin him. He it was that gave the 
Sakarran pirates permission to ascend the river for 
the purpose of attacking the comparatively defence- 
less mountain Dyaks ; and he it was that perse- 
cuted the unfortunate young Illanun chief, Si 
Tundo, even to his assassination. He was at last 
got rid of from Sarawak, but only to join and plan 
mischief with that noted piratical chief Seriff Sa- 
hib ; — he, however, met his deserts. 

We ascended the river in eight or ten boats. 
The scene to us was most novel, and particularly 
fresh and beautiful. We stopped at an empty 
house on a cleared spot on the left bank during 
the ebb-tide, to cook our dinner; in the cool of 
the afternoon we proceeded with the flood; and 
late in the evening brought up for the night in 
a snug little creek close to tjie Chinese settlement. 
We slept in native boats, which were nicely and 
comfortably fitted for the purpose. At an early 
hour Mr. Brooke was waited on by the chief of 
the Kunsi ; and on visiting their settlement he was 
received with a salute of three guns. We found 
it kept in their usual neat and clean order, par- 
ticularly their extensive vegetable-gardens ; but 
being rather pressed for time, we did not visit the 



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DIFFICULTY OF TRAVELLING. 31 

mines, but proceeded "to the villages of different 
tribes of Dyaks living on the Sarambo mountain, 
numbers of whom had been down to welcome us, 
very gorgeously dressed in feathers and scarlet. 

The foot of the mountain was about four miles 
from the landing-place; and a number of these 
kind savages voluntarily shouldered our provisions, 
beds, bags, and baggage, and we proceeded on our 
march. We did not expect to find quite a turn- 
pike-road ; but, at the same time, I, for one, was 
not prepared for the dance led us by our wild cat- 
like guides through thick jungle, and alternately 
over rocky hills, or up to our middles in the soft 
marshes we had to cross. Our only means of do- 
ing so was by feeling on the surface of the mud 
(it being covered in most places about a foot deep 
with grass or discoloured water) for light spars 
thrown along lengthways and quite unconnected, 
whilst our only support was an occasional stake at 
irregular distances, at which we used to rest, as 
the spars invariably sank into the mud if we at- 
tempted to stop; and there being a long string 
of us, many a fall and flounder in the mud (gun 
and all) was the consequence. 

The ascent of the hill, although as steep as 
the side of a house, was strikingly beautiful. Our 
resting-places, unluckily, were but few ; but when 
we did reach one, the cool fresh breeze, and the 
increasing extent and variety of scene; — our view 
embracing, as it did, all the varieties of river, 



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32 HEADS. 

mountain, wood, and sea, — amply repaid us for the 
exertion of the lower walk ; and, on either hand, 
we were sure to have a pure cool rivulet tumbling 
over the rocks. While going up, however, our 
whole care and attention were requisite to secure 
our own safety ; for it is not only one continued 
climb up ladders, but such ladders I They are 
made of the single trunk of a tree in its rough 
and rounded state, with notches, not cut at the 
reasonable distance apart of the rattlins of our 
rigging, but requiring the knee to be brought up 
to the level of the chin before the feet are suffi- 
ciently parted to reach from one step to another ; 
and that, when the muscles of the thigh begin to 
ache, and the wind is pumped out of the body, is 
distressing work. 

We mounted, in this manner, some 500 feet ; 
and it was up this steep that Mr. Brooke had as- 
cended only a few months before, with two hundred 
followers, to attack the Singe Dyaks. He has 
already described the circular halls of these Dyaks, 
in one of which we were received, hung round, 
as the interior of it is, with hundreds of human 
heads, most of them dried with the skin and hair 
on ; and to give them, if possible, a more ghastly 
appearance, small shells (the cowry) are inserted 
where the eyes once were, and tufts of dried 
grass protrude from the ears. But my eye soon 
grew accustomed to the sight ; and by the time 
dinner was ready (I think I may say we) thought 



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GRAND FETE. S3 

no more about them than if they had been as many 
cocoa-nuts. 

Of course the natives crowded round us ; and 
I noticed that with these simple people it was 
much the same as with the more civilised, and 
that curiosity was strongest in the gentler sex ; 
and again, that the young men came in more 
gorgeously dressed — wearing feathers, necklaces, 
armlets, ear-rings, bracelets, besides jackets of va- 
rious-coloured silks, and other vanities — than the 
older and wiser chiefs, who encumbered them* 
selves with no more dress than what decency ac- 
tually required, and were, moreover, treated with 
the greatest respect. 

We strolled about from house to house with- 
out causing the slightest alarm : in all we were 
welcomed, and invited to squat ourselves on their 
mats with the family. The women, who were 
some of them very good-looking, did not run from 
us as the plain-headed Malays would have done; 
but laughed and chatted to us by signs, in all the 
consciousness of innocence and virtue. 

We were fortunate in visiting these Dyaks dur- 
ing one of their grand festivals (called Maugut) ; 
and in the evening, dancing, singing, and drinking 
were going on in various parts of the village. In 
one house there was a grand fete, in which the 
women danced with the men. The dress of the 
women was simple and, curious — a light jacket 
open in front, and a short petticoat not coming 

VOL. II. D 



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34 RELICS. 

below the knees, fitting close, was hung round 
with jingling bits of brass, which kept " making 
music'* wherever they went. The movement was 
like all other native dances — graceful, but mono* 
tonous. There were four men, two of them bear- 
ing human skulls, and two the fresh heads of pigs ; 
the women bore wax-lights, or yellow rice on brass 
dishes. They danced in line, moving backwards 
and forwards, and carrying the heads and dishes 
in both hands ; the graceful part was the manner 
in which they half turned the body to the right 
and left, looking over their shoulders and holding 
the heads in the opposite direction, as if they were 
in momentary expectation of some one coming up 
behind to snatch the nasty relic from them. At 
times the women knelt down in a group, with the 
men leaning over them. After all, the music was 
not the only thing wanting to make one imagine 
oneself at the opera. The necklaces of the women 
were chiefly of teeth — bears' the most common — 
human the most prized. 

In an interior house at one end were collected 
the relics of the tribe. These consisted of several 
round-looking stones, two deer's heads, and other 
inferior trumpery. The stones turn black if the 
tribe is to be beaten in war, and red if to be vic- 
torious : any one touching them would be sure to 
die ; if lost, the tribe would be ruined. 

The account of the deer's heads is still more 
curious : A young Dyak having dreamed the pre- 



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TRIBES SHARING HALF-HEADS, 35 

vioiis night that he should become a great warrior, 
observed two deer swimming across the river, and 
killed them ; a storm came on with thunder and 
lightning, and darkness came over the face of the 
earth ; he died immediately, but came to life 
again, and became a rumah guna (literally a use- 
ful house) and chief of his tribe ; the two deer still 
live, and remain to watch over the affairs of the 
tribe. These heads have descended from their 
ancestors from the time when they first became 
a tribe and inhabited the mountain. Food is al- 
ways kept placed before them, and renewed from 
time to time. While in the circular building, 
which our party named "the scullery, " a young 
chief (Meta) seemed to take great pride in an- 
swering our interrogatories respecting different 
skulls which we took down from their hooks : two 
belonged to chiefs of a tribe who had made a 
resolute defence ; and judging from the inci- 
sions on the heads, each of which must have been 
mortal, it must have been a desperate affair. 
Among other trophies was half a head, the skull 
separated from across between the eyes, in the 
same manner that you would divide that of a hare 
or rabbit to get at the brain — this was their divi- 
sion of the head of an old woman, which was taken 
when another (a friendly) tribe was present, who 
likewise claimed their half. I afterwards saw 
these tribes share a head. But the skulls, the 
account of which our informant appeared to dwell 



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36 SPORTING. 

on with the greatest delight, were those which 
were taken while the owners were asleep — cunning 
with them heing the perfection of warfare. We 
slept in their " scullery ;" and my servant Ash- 
ford, who happened to he a sleep-walker, that 
night jumped out of the window, and unluckily on 
the steep side ; and had not the ground heen well 
turned up by the numerous pigs, and softened by 
rain, he must have been hurt. 

May 25 ih Having returned to our boats, 

we moved up another branch of the river, for the 
purpose of deer-shooting, and landed under some 
large shady trees. The sportsmen divided into 
two small parties, and, under the guidance of the 
natives, went in search of game, leaving the re- 
mainder of the party to prepare dinner against our 
return. 

The distance we had to walk to get to our 
ground was what our guides considered nothing— 
some five miles through jungle ; and one of the 
most distressing parts in jungle- walking is the 
having to climb over the fallen trunks of immense 
trees. 

A short time before sunset we came to a part 
of the jungle that opened on to a large swamp, 
with long rank grass about six feet high, across 
which was a sort of Dyak bridge. The guide 
having made signs for me to advance, I cautiously 
crept to the edge of the jungle ; and after some 
little trouble, and watching the direction of his 



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SPORTING. 37 

finger, I observed the heads of two deer, male and 
female, protruding just above the grass at about 
sixty yards distance. From the manner the doe 
was moving about her long ears, it had, to my 
view, all the appearance of a rabbit. Shooting 
for the pot, I selected her. As soon as I fired, 
some of my boat's crew made a dash into the 
grass ; and in an instant three of them were 
nearly up to their chins in mud and water, and we 
had some difficulty in dragging them out. Our 
Malay guide more knowingly crossed the bridge ; 
and being acquainted with the locality, reached 
the deer from the opposite side, taking care to 
utter a prayer and cut the throat with the head 
in the direction of the Prophet's tomb at Mecca, 
without which ceremony no true follower of Islam 
could partake of the meat. The doe was struck 
just below the ear ; and my native companion 
appeared much astonished at the distance and 
deadly effect with which my smooth-bored Westley 
Richards had conveyed the ball. 

The buck had got off before the smoke had 
cleared sufficiently for me to see him. From what 
I had heard, I was disappointed at not seeing 
more game. The other party had not killed any 
thing, although they caught a little fawn, having 
frightened away the mother. 

My time was so occupied during my stay in 
Borneo, that I am unable to give any account of 
the sport to be found in the island. Neither had 



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38 SPORTING. 

Mr. Brooke seen much of it ; unless an excursion 
or two he had made in search of new specimens of 
the ourang-outang, or mias, may be brought under 
that head. This excursion he performed not only 
with the permission and under the protection, but 
as the guest, of the piratical chief Seriff Sahib ; 
little thinking that, in four years afterwards, he 
would himself, as a powerful Bajah, be the cause 
of destroying his town, and driving him from the 
country. 

So much for sporting. The pleasure, I believe, 
increases in proportion to the risk. But, while on 
the subject, I may mention that of pig- shooting, 
which I found an amusement not to be despised, 
especially if you approach your game before life is 
extinct. The jaws are long, tusks also, and sharp 
as a razor; and when once wounded, the animals 
evince a strong inclination to return the compli- 
ment : they are active, cunning, and very fast. I 
shot several at different times. The natives also 
describe a very formidable beast, the size of a large 
bullock, found further to the northward, which 
they appear to hold in great dread. This I con* 
ceive to be a sort of bison ; and if so, the sporting 
in Borneo altogether is not so bad. 

The following day we went to other ground for 
deer ; but the Dyaks had now enjoyed peace so 
long, that the whole country was in a state of cul- 
tivation ; and after scrambling over tracts of wild- 
looking country, in which Mr. Brooke, two years 



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PREPARATIONS FOR THE EXPEDITION, 39 

before, had seen tke deer in hundreds, we returned 
to our boats,. and down the river to Sarawak. 

We now began to prepare in earnest for work 
of another sort. The news of our intended attack 
on the Sarebus pirates had soon reached them, and 
spread all over the country \ and we had daily ac- 
counts of the formidable resistance they, intended 
to make* ♦ By. the 4th July our preparations were 
complete ; and the ship had dropped down to the 
mouth.Jbf the river. I forgot to mention, that all 
the adjoining Seriffs had, in the greatest conster- 
nation, sent me assurances of their future good 
intentions. Seriff Jaffer, who lived with an indus- 
trious but warlike race of Dyaks up the Linga 
river, a branch of the Batang Lupar, had never 
been known to commit piracy, and had been fre- 
quently at war with both the Sarebus and Sakar- 
rans, offered to join our expedition. From Seriff 
Sahib, who lived up a river at Sadong adjoining 
the Sarebus territory, and to whom the " Serpent" 
Macota had gone, Mr. Brooke and myself had 
invitations to partake of a feast on our way to 
the Sarebus river. This was accompanied with 
a present of a couple of handsome spears and a 
porcupine ; and also an offer to give up the women 
and children he had, with the assistance of the 
Sakarran pirates, captured from the poor Sow 
Dyaks up the Sarawak. 

Further to the eastward, and up the Batang 
Lupar, into which the Sakarran runs, lived ano- 



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40 THE EXPEDITION. 

ther powerful Seriff, by the name of Muller, elder 
brother and coadjutor of Seriff Sahib, These all, 
however, through fear at the moment, sent in sub- 
missive messages ; but their turn had not yet 
come, and we proceeded towards the Sarebus. 

The island of Burong, off which the Dido was 
to remain at anchor, we made the first place of 
rendezvous. The force from the Dido consisted 
of her pinnace, two cutters, and a gig; besides 
which Mr. Brooke lent us his native-built boat, 
the Jolly Bachelor, carrying a long six-pounder 
brass gun, and thirty of our men ; also a large 
tope of thirty-five tons, which carried a well-sup- 
plied commissariat, as well as ammunition. 

The native force was extensive; but I need 
only mention the names of those from Sarawak. 
The three chiefs (the Tumangong and two Patin- 
gis, Gapoor and Ali) had two large boats, esch 
carrying about 180 men. Then there was the 
Kajah's large heavy boat, with the rascally Bor- 
neons, and about 40 men ; and sundry other Sara- 
wak boats : and besides, a Dyak force of about 
400 men from the different tribes of Lundu, Sow, 
Singe, &c. Of course, it caused some trouble to 
collect this wild undisciplined armament, and two 
or three successive points of rendezvous were ne- 
cessary; and it was the morning of the 8th be- 
fore we entered the river. Lieutenant Wilmot 
Horton was to command the expedition ; with him, 
in the pinnace, were Mr. W. L. Partridge, mate ; 



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THE EXPEDITION. 41 

Dr. Simpson, assistant-surgeon ; Mr. Hallowes, 
midshipman ; 14 seamen, and 5 marines. In the 
first cutter was Mr. D'Aeth, Mr. Douglas, from 
Sarawak, and Mr. Collins, the boatswain ; in the 
second cutter, Mr. Elliott, the master, and Mr. 
Jenkins, midshipman. The Jolly Bachelor was 
commanded by Lieutenant Tottenham, and Mr. 
Comber, midshipman ; with Mr. Brooke's medical 
friend, Dr. Treacher, and an amateur gentleman, 
Mr. Ruppel, from. Sarawak. The force from the 
Dido was about 80, officers and men. The com- 
mand of the boats, when sent away from a man-of- 
war, is the perquisite of the first lieutenant. My 
curiosity, however, would not allow me to resist 
the temptation of attending the party in my gig ; 
and I had my friend Mr. Brooke as a companion, 
who was likewise attended by a sampan and crew 
he had taken with him to Sarawak from Singa- 
pore. His coxswain, Seboo, we shall all long re- 
member: he was civil only to his master, and, I 
believe, brave while in his company. He was a 
stupid-looking and powerfully-built sort of savage, 
always praying, eating, smiling, or sleeping. When 
going into action, he always went down on his 
knees to pray, holding his loaded musket before 
him. He was, however, a curious character, and 
afforded us great amusement, — took good care of 
himself and his master, but cared for no one else. 

In the second gig was Lieutenant E. Gunnell, 
whose troublesome duty it was to preserve order 



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42 THE EXPEDITION. 

throughout this extensive musquito fleet, and to 
keep the natives from pressing too closely oh the 
rear of our boats, — an office which became less 
troublesome as we approached the scene of danger. 
The whole formed a novel, picturesque, and excite 
ing scene ; and it was curious to contemplate the 
different feelings that actuated the separate and 
distinct parties; the odd mixture of Europeans, 
Malays, and Dyaks ; the different religions ; and 
the eager and anxious manner in which all pressed 
forward. The novelty of the thing was quite suffi- 
cient to excite our Jacks, after having been cooped 
up so long on board ship — to say nothing of the 
chance of a broken head. 

Of the Malays and Dyaks who accompanied 
us, some came from curiosity, some from attach- 
ment to Mr. Brooke, and many for plunder; but 
I think the majority to gratify revenge, as there 
were but few of the inhabitants, on the north coast 
of Borneo, who had not suffered more or less from 
the atrocities of the Sarebus and Sakarran pirates 
— either their houses burnt, their relations mur- 
dered, or their wives and children captured and 
sold into slavery. 

We did not get far up the river the first day, 
as the tope was very slow, and carried that most 
essential part of all expeditions, the commissariat. 
Patingi Ali, who had been sent the day before to 
await the force in the mouth of the Sarebus, fell 
in with five or six native boats, probably on the 



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THE EXPEDITION. 48 

look-out for us, to which he gave chase, and cap- 
tured one, the rest retreating up the river. 

On the 9th June, 1843, we had got some thirty 
miles in the same direction ; every thing was in 
order ; and, as we advanced, I pulled from one 
end of my little fleet to the other, and felt much 
the same sort of pride as Sir William Parker must 
have experienced when leading seventy-five sail of 
British ships up the Yeang tse Keang river into 
the very heart of the Celestial Empire. It rained 
hard ; hut we were well supplied with kajans, a 
mat admirably adapted to keep out the wet ; and 
securely covered in, my gig had all the appearance 
of a native boat, especially as I had substituted 
paddles for oars. In this manner I frequently 
went a little in advance of the force ; and on the 
9th I came on a couple of boats, hauled close in 
under the jungle, apparently perfectly unconscious 
of my approach. I concluded them to be part of 
the small fleet of boats that had been chased, the 
previous day, in the mouth of the river ; and when 
abreast of them, and within range, I fired from my 
rifle. The crews of each boat immediately preci- 
pitated themselves into the water, and escaped 
into the jungle. They were so closely covered in, 
that I did not see any one at first; but I found 
that my ball had passed through both sides of an 
iron kettle, in which they were boiling some rice. 
How astonished the cook must have been ! On 
coming up, our Dyak followers dashed into the 



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44 THE EXPEDITION. 

jungle in pursuit of the fugitives, but without 
success. 

We moved on leisurely with the flood-tide, an- 
choring always on the ebb, by which means we 
managed to collect our stragglers and keep the 
force together. Towards the evening, by the in- 
cessant sound of distant gongs, we were aware that 
our approach was known, and that preparations 
were making to repel us. These noises were kept 
up all night ; and we occasionally heard the dis- 
tant report of ordnance, which was fired, of course, 
to intimidate us. During the day, several deserted 
boats were taken from the banks of the river and 
destroyed, some of them containing spears, shields, 
and ammunition, with a few fire-arms. 

The place we brought up at for the night 
was called Boling ; but here the river presented 
a troublesome and dangerous obstacle in what is 
called the bore, caused by the tide coming in with 
a tremendous rush, as if an immense wave of the 
sea had suddenly rolled up the stream, and, finding 
itself confined on either side, extended across, like 
a high bank of water, curling and breaking as it 
went, and, from the frightful velocity with which 
it passes up, carrying all before it. There are, 
however, certain bends of the river where the bore 
does not break across : it was now our business 
to look out for and gain these spots between the 
times of its activity, The natives hold them in 
great dread. 



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THE EXPEDITION. 45 

From Boling the river becomes less deep, and 
not safe for large boats ; so that here we were 
obliged to leave our tope with the commissariat, 
and a sufficient force for her protection, as we had 
received information that thirteen piratical boats 
had been some time cruising outside, and were 
daily expected up the river on their return, when 
our unguarded tope would have made them an 
acceptable prize. In addition to this, we were 
now fairly in the enemy's country : and for all we 
knew, hundreds of canoes might have been hid in 
the jungle, ready to launch. Just below Boling, 
the river branches off to the right and left ; that 
to the left leading to another nest of pirates at 
Pakoo, who are (by land) in communication with 
those of Paddi, the place it was our intention to 
attack .first. 

Having provisioned our boats for six days, 
and provided a strong guard to remain with the 
tope, the native force not feeling themselves safe 
separated from the main body, — we started, a 
smaller and more select party than before, but, in 
my opinion, equally formidable, leaving about 150 
men. This arrangement gave but little satisfac- 
tion to those left behind, our men not liking to 
exchange an expedition where a fight was certain, 
for a service in which it was doubtful, although 
their position was one of danger, being open to 
attack from three different parts of the river. 
Our party now consisted of the Dido's boats, the 



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46 THE SCENERY. 

three Datus from Sarawak, and some Sow Dyaks, 
eager for heads and plunder. We arrived at our 
first resting-place early in the afternoon, and took 
up a position in as good order as the small space 
would admit. 

I secured my gig close to the bank, under the 
shade of a large tree, at some little distance from 
the fleet of boats; and, by myself, contemplated 
my novel position — in command of a mixed force 
of 500 men, some seventy miles up a river in the 
interior of Borneo ; on the morrow about to carry 
all the horrors of war amongst a race of savage 
pirates, whose country no force had ever yet dared 
to invade, and who had been inflicting with im- 
punity every sort of cruelty on all whom they 
encountered, for more than a century. 

As the sun went down, the scene was beau- 
tiful, animated by the variety and picturesque ap- 
pearance of the native prahus, and the praying 
of the Mussulman, with his face in- the direction 
of the Prophet's tomb, bowing his head to the 
deck of his boat, and absorbed in devotions from 
which nothing could withdraw his attention. For 
a time — it being that for preparing the evening 
meal — no noise was made: it was a perfect calm; 
and the rich foliage was reflected in the water 
as in a mirror, while a small cloud of smoke as- 
cended from each boat, to say nothing of that 
from my cigar, which added much to the charm 
I then experienced. 



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A RUSE. 47 

Late in the evening, when the song and joke 
passed from boat to boat, and the lights from the 
different fires were reflected in the water, the 
scenery was equally pleasing ; but later still, when 
the lights were out, there being no moon, and 
the banks overhung with trees, it was so dark 
that no one could see beyond his own boat. 

A little after midnight, a small boat was heard 
passing up the river, and was regularly hailed by 
us in succession ; to which they replied, " We 
belong to your party." And it was not until the 
yell of triumph, given by six or eight voices, after 
they had (with a strong flood-tide in their favour) 
shot past the last of our boats, that we found how 
we had been imposed on. 



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CHAPTEB III. 

Ascent of the river to Paddi. Town taken and burnt. Narrow 
escape of a reinforcement of friendly Dyaks. Night- attack 
by the pirates. Conference : they submit. Proceed against 
Pakoo. Dyak treatment of dead enemies. Destruction of 
Pakoo, and submission of the pirates. Advance upon Rem- 
bas. The town destroyed : the inhabitants yield. Satis- 
factory effects of the expedition. Death of Dr. Simpson. 
Triumphant return to Sarawak. 

June 11th. — We moved on immediately after the 
passing up of the bore, the dangers of which ap- 
peared to have been greatly exaggerated. The 
beating of gongs and discharge of cannon had been 
going on the whole of the previous night. 

The scenery improved in beauty every yard 
that we advanced ; but our attention was drawn 
from it by the increase of yelling as we approached 
the scene of action. Although as yet we had only 
heard our enemies, our rapid advance with a 
strong tide must have been seen by them from the 
jungle on the Various hills which now rose to our 
view. 

Being in my gig, somewhat ahead of the boats, 
I had the advantage of observing all that occurred. 
The scene was the most exciting I ever experien- 



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FIRST SEE THE PIRATES. 49 

ced. We had no time for delay or consideration : 
the tide was sweeping us rapidly up ; and had we 
been inclined to retreat then, we should have found 
it difficult. A sudden turn in the river brought 
us (Mr. Brooke was by my side) in front of a steep 
hill which rose from the bank. It had been cleared 
of jungle, and long grass grew in its place. As we 
hove in sight, several hundred savages rose up, 
and gave one of their war-yells : it was the first I 
had heard. No report from musketry or ordnance 
could ever make a man's heart feel so small as 
mine did at that horrid yell : but I had no leisure 
to think. I had only time for a shot at them with 
my double-barrel as they rushed down the steep, 
whilst I was carried past. . I soon after heard the 
report of our large boat's heavy gun, which must 
have convinced them that we likewise were pre- 
pared. 

On the roof of a long building, on the summit 
of the hill, were several warriors performing a war- 
dance, which it would be difficult to imitate on 
such a stage. As these were not the forts we were 
in search of, we did not delay longer than to ex- 
change a few shots in sweeping along. 

Our next obstacle was more troublesome, being 
a strong barrier right across the river, formed of 
two rows of trees placed firmly in the mud, with 
their tops crossed and secured together by rattans ; 
and along the fork, formed by the crossing of the 
tops of these stakes, were other trees firmly se- 

VOL. II. E 



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50 AN AWKWARD PREDICAMENT. 

cured. Rapidly approaching this barrier, I ob- 
served a small opening that might probably admit 
a canoe ; and gathering good way, and putting my 
gig's head straight at it, I squeezed through. On 
passing it the scene again changed, and I had before 
me three formidable-looking forts, which lost not a 
moment in opening a discharge of cannon on my 
unfortunate gig. Luckily their guns were properly 
elevated for the range of the barrier ; and, with 
the exception of a few straggling grape-shot that 
splashed the water round us, the whole went over 
our heads. For a moment I found myself cut off 
from my companions, and drifting fast upon the 
enemy. The banks of the river were covered with 
warriors, yelling and rushing down to possess them- 
selves of my boat and its crew. I had some diffi- 
culty in getting my long gig round, and paddling 
up against the stream ; but while my friend Brooke 
steered the boat, my coxswain and myself kept up 
a fire, with tolerable aim, on the embrasures, to 
prevent, if possible, their reloading before the pin- 
nace, our leading boat, could bring her twelve- 
pound carronade to bear. I was too late to pre- 
vent the pinnace falling athwart the barrier, in 
which position she had three men wounded. With 
the assistance of some of our native followers, the 
rattan -lashings which secured the' heads of the 
stakes were soon cut through ; and I was not sorry 
when I found the Dido's first cutter on the same 
side with myself. The other boats soon followed ; 



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PADDI TAKEN AND BURNT. 51 

and while the pinnace kept up a destructive fire on 
the fort, Mr. D'Aeth, who was the first to land, 
jumped on shore, with his crew, at the foot of the 
hill on the top of which the nearest fort stood, 
and at once rushed for the summit. This mode 
of warfare — this dashing at once in the very face 
of their fort — was so novel and incomprehensible 
to our enemies, that they fled, panic-struck, into 
the jungle ; and it was with the greatest difficulty 
that our leading men could get even a snap-shot at 
the rascals as they went. 

That evening the country was illuminated for 
miles by the burning of the capital, Paddi, and ad- 
jacent villages; at which work, and plundering, 
our native followers were most expert. 

At Paddi the river branches off to the right 
and left ; and it was on the tongue of land formed 
by them that the forts were very cleverly placed. 
We took all their guns, and burnt the stockades 
level with the ground. 

The banks of the river were here so confined, 
that a man might with ease throw a spear across ; 
and as the jungle was close, it was necessary to 
keep pretty well on the alert. For the greater 
part of the night, the burning of the houses made 
it as bright as day. In the evening, Drs. Simpson 
and Treacher amputated a poor fellow's arm close 
to the shoulder, which, in the cramped space of a 
boat, was no easy operation. He was one of our 



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52 NARROW ESCAPE 

best men, and captain of the forecastle on board 
the Dido. 

Early on *the following morning (12th) our 
boats, with the exception of the Jolly Bachelor, 
now become the hospital, proceeded up the two 
branches of the river ; almost all the native force 
remaining to complete the work of destruction. 

An accident had nearly occurred at this period. 
A report had reached us that several large boats — 
supposed to be a fleet of Sarebus pirates returning 
from a cruise — were in the river ; and knowing 
that they could not well attack and pass our force 
at Boling without our hearing of it, I took no 
further notice of the rumour, intending to go down 
in my gig afterwards, and have a look at them. 
While we were at breakfast in the Jolly Bachelor, 
a loud chattering of many voices was heard, at- 
tended by a great beating of tom-toms ; and sud- 
denly a large prahu, crowded with savages, came 
sweeping round the bend of the river, rapidly near- 
ing us with a strong flood-tide. As she advanced, 
others hove in sight. In a moment pots and spoons 
were thrown down, arms seized, and the brass six- 
pounder, loaded with grape and canister, was on 
the point of being fired, when Williamson, the 
only person who understood thfeir character, made 
us aware that they were a friendly tribe of Dyaks, 
from the river Linga, coming to our assistance, or, 
more likely, coming to seek for plunder and the 



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• OF FRIENDLY DYAKS. 53 

heads of their enemies, with whom they had for 
many years heen at war. Those in the leading 
boat had, however, a narrow escape, I had al- 
ready given the order to fire; but luckily the 
priming had been blown off from the six-pounder. 
Had it not been so, fifty at least out of the first 
hundred would have been sent to their long homes. 
They were between eight and nine hundred strong. 
The scene to me was indeed curious and exciting : 
for the wild appearance of these fellows exceeded 
any thing I had yet witnessed. Their war-dresses 
— each decorating himself according to his own pe- 
culiar fancy, in a costume the most likely at once 
to adorn the wearer and strike terror into the 
enemy— made a remarkable show. Each had a 
shield and a handful of spears ; about one in ten 
was furnished with some sort of fire-arm, which 
was of more danger to himself or his neighbour 
than to any one else. They wore short padded 
jackets, capable of resisting the point of a wooden 
spear. 

The first thing necessary was to supply each 
with a strip of white calico, to be worn in the 
head-dress as a distinguishing mark, to prevent 
our people knocking them over if met by accident 
while prowling about the jungle. We also estab- 
lished a watchword, *Datu/ which many of them, 
who had great dread of the white men, never 
ceased to call out. Seriff Jaffer, in command of 
their force, had promised to join us from the be- 



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54 PURSUE THE PIRATES. 

ginning; but as they did not make their appear- 
ance off the mouth of the river, we thought no 
more of them. It was necessary to despatch mes- 
sengers up the rivers to inform our boats of this 
reinforcement, as in all probability an attack would 
have been made immediately on the appearing in 
sight of so formidable a force* 

At 10 a.m. our boats returned, having gone up 
the right-hand branch as far as it was practicable. 
That to the left having been obstructed by trees 
felled across the stream, was considered, from the 
trouble taken to prevent our progress, to be the 
branch up which the enemy had retreated ; and 
not being provisioned for more than the day, they 
came back, and started again in the afternoon 
with the first of the flood-tide. Of this party 
Lieutenant Horton took charge, accompanied by 
Mr. Brooke. It was a small but an effective and 
determined and well-appointed little body, not 
likely to be deterred by difficulties. A small na- 
tive force of about forty men accompanied them, 
making, with our own, between eighty and ninety 
people. The forts having been destroyed, no 
further obstacles were expected to our advance 
beyond the felling of trees and the vast odds as 
to numbers in case of attack, the pirates being 
reckoned to about six thousand Dyaks and five 
hundred Malays. 

The evening set in with rain and hazy weather. 
Our native skirmishing parties were returning to 



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NIGHT-ATTACK BY THE PIRATES. 65 

their boats and evening meals ; our advancing 
party had been absent about an hour and a half ; 
and I had just commenced a supper in the Jolly 
Bachelor on ham and poached eggs, when the 
sound of the pinnace's twelve -pounder carronade 
broke through the stillness of the night. This 
was responded to by one of those simultaneous war- 
yells apparently from every part of the country. 
My immediate idea was that our friends had been 
surrounded. It was impossible to move so large 
a boat as the Jolly Bachelor up to their assist- 
ance ; nor would it be right to leave our wounded 
without a sufficient force for their protection. I 
immediately jumped into my gig, taking with me 
a bugler, whom I placed in the bow; and seeing 
our arms in as perfect readiness as the rain would 
allow us to keep them in, I proceeded to join the 
combatants. 

Daylight had disappeared, as it does in tro- 
pical climates, immediately after the setting of 
the sun. The tide had just turned against me ; 
and as I advanced up the river, the trees hung 
over many parts, nearly meeting across ; at the 
same time the occasional firing that was kept up 
assured me that the enemy were on the alert, and 
with all the advantages of local knowledge and 
darkness on their side. From the winding of the 
stream, too, the yells appeared to come from every 
direction, sometimes ahead and sometimes astern. 
I had pulled, feeling my way, for nearly two hours, 



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56 POSITION OF THE COMBATANTS. 

when a sudden and quick discharge of musketry, 
well on my left hand, intimated to me that I was 
approaching the scene of action ; and, at the same 
time, passing several large canoes hauled up on 
the bank, I felt convinced that my anticipation 
was right, that our party were surrounded, and 
that we should have to fight our way to each 
other. My plan was to make it appear as if 
I was bringing up a strong reinforcement ; and 
the moment the firing ceased, I made the bugler 
strike up " Rory O'More," which was immediately 
responded to by three British cheers j and then 
followed a death-like stillness — if any thing, more 
unpleasant than the war-yell ; and I could not 
help feeling certain that the enemy lay between 
us. 

The stream now ran rapidly over loose stones. 
Against the sky, where the jungle had been 
cleared, I could distinctly see the outlines of 
human beings. I laid my double-barrel across 
my knees, and we pulled on. When within shot- 
range, I hailed, to make certain ; and receiving 
no answer, after a second time, I fired, keeping 
the muskets of the gig's crew ready to repel the 
first attack in case the enemy did not decamp. 
My fire was answered by Lieutenant Horton : 
" We are here, sir." At first I was much dis- 
tressed, from the fear that I might have hurt any 
one. They had not heard me hail, owing, I sup- 
pose, to the noise of the water rushing over the 



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POSITION OF THE COMBATANTS. 57 

stones ; and they had not hailed me, thinking 
that I must of course know that it was them; 
and the enemy being in the jungle all round, they 
did not like to attract attention to where they 
were. I found they had taken up a very clever 
position. The running stream had washed the 
ground away on the right bank, leaving a sort of 
little deep bay, just big enough to hold the boats, 
from which the bank rose quite perpendicularly. 
On the top of this. bank the jungle had been 
cleared for about thirty yards; and on this Lieu- 
tenant Gunnell, with seven royal marines, was 
posted as a rear-guard. This was an important 
position, and one of danger, as the jungle itself 
was alive with the enemy ; and although the 
spears were hurled from it continually during the 
night, no shot was thrown away unless the figure 
of the pirate could be distinctly seen. 

It continued to rain : the men wore their great- 
coats for the purpose of keeping their pieces dry ; 
and several times, during that long night, I ob- 
served the muskets of these steady and good men 
brought to the shoulder and again lowered without 
firing, as that part of the jungle whence a spear 
had been hurled to within a few feet of where 
they stood did not shew a distinct form of any 
thing living. The hours were little less interest- 
ing for those who, in the boats below, stood facing 
the opposite bank of the river with their arms in 
their hands. It appears that the enemy had come 



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58 POSITION OF THE COMBATANTS. 

down in great force to attack the boats from that 
side ; and as the river was there very shallow, and 
the bottom hard, they could, by wading not more 
than knee-deep, have approached to within five 
or six yards of them : but in the first attack they 
had lost a great many men ; and it is supposed 
that their repeated advances throughout the night 
were more to recover their dead and wounded than 
to make any fresh attack on our compact little 
force, whose deadly aim , and rapid firing must 
have astonished them, and who certainly were, one 
and all, prepared to sell their lives as dearly as 
possible. 

To the left of our position, and about 200 
yards up the river, large trees were being felled 
during the night ; and by the torch-lights shewing 
the spot, the officer of the boat, Mr. Partridge, 
kept up a very fair ball-practice with the pinnace's 
gun. Towards morning a shot fell apparently just 
where they were at work ; and that being accom- 
panied by what we afterwards ascertained caused 
more horror and consternation among the enemy 
than any thing else, a common signal sky-rocket, 
made them resign the ground entirely to us. The 
last shot, too, that was fired from the pinnace 
had killed three men. 

As daylight broke, I found that most of our 
party had squatted down with their guns between 
their knees, and being completely exhausted, had 
fallen asleep in spite of the rain. Few will ever 



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DAYLIGHT : FLAG OF TRUCE. 59 

forget that night. There were two natives and 
one marine only of our party badly wounded : the 
latter was struck by a rifle-shot, which entered 
his chest and lodged in the shoulder ; and this, 
poor fellow a gallant young officer named Jenkins, 
already distinguished in the Chinese war, volun- 
teered to convey in the second gig, with four boys 
only, down to the Jolly Bachelor. He performed 
this duty, and was again up with the party before 
daylight. 

At daylight we found the pirates collecting 
in some force above us ; and several shots were 
fired, as if to try the range of their rifles ; but 
they took good care not to come within reach of 
our muskets. Shortly after, the tide beginning to 
rise, we made preparations for ascending further 
up the river. This was more than they bargained 
for, as we were close to where they had removed 
their families, with such little valuables as they 
could collect, when we so unexpectedly carried 
their forts and took possession of their town ; and 
we were not sorry on observing, at that moment, 
a flag of truce advance from their party down 
the stream, and halt half-way to our position. 
We immediately sent an unarmed Malay to meet 
them; and after a little talk, they came to our 
boats. The message was, that they were ready 
to abide by any terms we might dictate. I pro- 
mised that hostilities should cease for two hours \ 
but told them we could treat only with the chiefs, 



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60 TJftE CONFERENCE* 

whose persons should be protected, and I invited 
them to a conference at 1 p.m. 

In the mean while, having first sent notice 
by the messengers, I took advantage of the time, 
and ascended in my gig, without any great diffi- 
culty, above the obstruction they had been so busy 
throwing across the river during the night. The 
news that hostilities were to cease was not long 
in being communicated ; and, by the time I had 
got up, the greatest confidence appeared to be 
established. Having pulled up into shoal-water, 
and where the river widened, the banks were soon 
covered with natives ; and some seventy or eighty 
immediately laid aside their spears and walked 
off to my boat, the whole of which, together with 
its crew, they examined with the greatest curiosity. 

In the heat of the day we indulged in a most 
refreshing bath under the shade of over-hanging 
trees, the bottom of the river being fine sand and 
pebbles worn smooth by the running stream. 

At the appointed hour the chiefs made their 
appearance, dressed in their best, but looking 
haggard and dejected. Mr. Brooke, the "Tuan 
Besar," or great man, officiated as spokesman. 

He fully explained that our invasion of their 
country, and destruction of their forts and town, 
was not for the purposes of pillage or gain to our- 
selves, but as a punishment for their repeated and 
aggravated acts of piracy ; that they had been 
fully warned, for two years before, that the British 



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SUBMISSION OF THE PIRATES. 6l 

nation would no longer allow the native trade be- 
tween the adjacent islands and Singapore to be cut 
off and plundered, and the crews of the vessels 
cruelly put to death, as they had been. 

They were very humble and submissive ; ad- 
mitted that their lives were forfeited ; and if we 
said they were to die, they were prepared, al- 
though, they explained, they were equally willing 
to live. They promised to refrain for ever from 
piracy, and offered hostages for their good be- 
haviour. 

Mr. Brooke then explained how much more 
advantageous trade would be than piracy, and in- 
vited them to a further conference at Sarawak, 
where they might witness all the blessings result- 
ing from the line of conduct he had advised them 
to follow. If, on the other hand, we heard of a 
single act of piracy being committed by them, 
their country should be again invaded and occu- 
pied ; and their enemies, the whole tribe of Linga 
Dyaks, let loose upon them, until they were rooted 
out and utterly destroyed. 

To other questions they replied, that although 
the chief held communication and was in the habit 
of cruising with the people of the other settlements 
of Pakoo and Bembas, still they could not hold 
themselves responsible for their good conduct ; 
and as both held strongly fortified positions (of 
course supposed by themselves to be impregnable), 
they did not think that they would abstain alto- 



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62 RETURN TO BOLING. 

gether from piracy unless we visited and inflicted 
a similar chastisement to that they themselves had 
suffered. They also stated that, although they 
never would again submit to the orders of the great 
and powerful chiefs, Seriffs Sahib and Muller, 
still they could not join in any expedition against 
them or their old allies, their bloodthirsty and for- 
midable neighbours in the Sakarran river. 

On our return to the still-smoking ruins of the 
once picturesque town of Faddi, we .found that 
Seriff Jaffer, with his 800 warriors, had not been 
idle. The country round had been laid waste. 
All had been desolated, together with their exten- 
sive winter-stores of rice. It was a melancholy 
sight ; and, for a moment, I forgot the horrid acts 
of piracy and cruel murders of these people, and 
my heart relented at what I had done — it was but 
for a few minutes. 

Collecting our forces, we dropped leisurely 
down the river, but not without a parting yell of 
triumph from our Dyak force — a yell that must 
have made the hearts of those quail whose wives 
and children lay concealed in the jungle near to 
where we had held our conference. 

We arrived at Boling soon after midnight, 
where we found the tope, with our provision, quite 
safe. Several shots had been fired at her the night 
before; and large parties had repeatedly come 
down to the banks, and endeavoured* to throw 
spears on board. 



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PAKOO DESTROYED. 63 

At daylight (Wednesday, 14th) we lost no time 
in completing to four days' provisions, and start- 
ing, with the flood-tide, for Pakoo. It took us 
until late in the evening before we appeared in 
sight of two newly built stockades, from which the 
pirates fled, panic-struck, without firing a shot, on 
our first discharge. We had evidently come on 
them before they were prepared, as we found some 
of the guns in the forts with the slings still on by 
which they had been carried. 

The positions of the forts here, as at Faddi, 
were selected with great judgment ; and had their 
guns been properly served, it would have been 
sharp work for boats. The same work of destruc- 
tion was carried on ; but the town was larger than 
at Paddi, and night setting in, the conflagration 
had a grand effect. 

Although the greater part of their valuables 
had been removed, the place was alive with goats 
and poultry, the catching of which afforded great 
sport for our men. Some of the Singe Dyaks suc- 
ceeded in taking the heads of a few pirates, who 
probably were killed or wounded in the forts on 
our first discharge. I saw one body afterwards 
without its head, in which each passing Dyak had 
thought proper to stick a spear, so that it had 
all the appearance of a huge porcupine. 

The operation of extracting the brains from 
the lower part of the skull, with a bit of bamboo 
shaped like a spoon, preparatory to preserving, is 



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64 SUBMISSION OF THE PIRATES. 

not a pleasing one. The head is then dried, with 
the flesh and hair on it, suspended over a slow fire, 
during which process the chiefs and elders of the 
tribe perform a sort of war-dance. 

Soon after daylight the following morning 
(Thursday, 15th), the chiefs of the tribe came 
down with a flag of truce, when much the same 
sort of conference took place as at Paddi. They 
were equally submissive, offering their own lives, 
but begging those of their wives and children 
might be spared. After promising to accede to all 
we desired, they agreed to attend the conference 
about to assemble at Sarawak, where the only terms 
on which they could expect lasting peace and mu- 
tual good understanding would be fully explained 
and discussed. 

Like their friends at Paddi, they were of 
opinion that their neighbours at Rembas would 
not abstain from piracy until they had received 
convincing proof that the power existed which 
was capable and determined to put down piracy. 
All these misguided people appeared not only to 
listen to reason, but to be open to conviction ; and 
I am far from imputing to them that treachery so 
commonly attributed to all classes of Malays. The 
higher grades, I admit, are cunning and deceitful ; 
but subsequent events during the last two years 
have proved the truth and honesty of the intentions 
of these people. They have strictly adhered to 
their promises ; and have since, although sur- 



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ADVANCE UPON REMBAS. 65 

rounded by piratical tribes, been carrying on a 
friendly trade with Sarawak. 

Our tiext point of attack was Eembas, Al- 
though there was a nearer overland communication 
between those places, the distance by water was 
upwards of sixty miles ; but the strong tides were 
of great assistance, as we could always rest when 
they were against us. High water was the only 
time, however, that suited us for landing, as the 
fall of tide left a considerable space of soft mud to 
wade through before reaching terra jirma : this 
was sufficiently unpleasant to our men, without 
the additional trouble of having to load and fire 
when in that position, — besides, when stuck fast 
in the mud, you become a much easier object to 
be fired at. At Eembas the tide was not up until 
just before daylight ; and having no moon to light 
us, a night attack was not considered advisable; 
so that we brought up about a quarter-tide below 
the town on the evening of the 16th. As Eembas 
contained a larger proportion of Malays (who are 
always well supplied with fire-arms) than the other 
settlements, though we had not experienced any 
opposition at Pakoo, we fully expected they would 
here make a better stand. 

We advanced early in the morning, and soon 
came up with a succession of formidable barriers, 
more troublesome to cut through than any we 
had before encountered. About a mile below the 
town we landed 700 of the Linga Dyaks on the 

VOL. II. f 



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66 REMBAS TAKEN 

left bank of the river, who were to separate into 
two divisions, — commanded by Seriff Jaffer and 
his son, a remarkably fine and spirited youth, — 
and creep stealthily through the jungle, for which 
the country was well adapted, so as to get to the 
rear of the town and forts, and make a simul- 
taneous attack on the first shot being fired from 
our boats. The last barrier (and there were four 
of them) was placed just within point-blank range ; 
the gig being a light boat, I managed to haul her 
over, close to the bank, and advanced so as to be 
both out of sight and out of range ; and just as 
our first boat came up with the barrier, I pushed 
out from under the bank, and opened a fire of 
musketry on the stockade, which was full of men. 
This, with the war-yell that followed from their 
rear (both unexpected), together with their fears 
having been already worked upon by the destruc- 
tion of Faddi and defeat of Fakoo, threw them 
into the greatest confusion. They fled in all 
directions, without provoking us by firing a shot, 
although we found the guns loaded. Seriff Jaffer 
and his Dyaks were gratified by having all the 
fighting to themselves, and by some very pretty 
hand-to-hand encounters. We were much amused 
afterwards by their own account of the heroic 
deeds they had performed. Lives were lost on 
both sides, and heads taken. This Bembas was 
by far the largest and strongest place we had 
assaulted. We found some very large war-boats* 



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AND DESTROYED. 67 

both fitted and building; one measured ninety- 
two feet in length, with fourteen beam ; and in 
addition to the usual good supply of fruit, goats, 
and poultry, our men were gratified by finding 
several bullocks;.. The plunder was great; and 
although, with the exception of the guns, of no 
value to us, it was very much so to our native 
followers. 

After we had destroyed every thing, we re- 
ceived a flag of truce, when similar explanations 
and promises were made as at Paddi and Pakoo ; 
and here ended, for the present, the warlike part 
of our expedition. The punishment we had in- 
flicted was severe, but not more than the crime 
of their « horrid piracies deserved. A few heads 
were brought away by our Dyak followers as 
trophies ; but ther,e was no unnecessary sacrifice 
of life, and I do not believe there was a woman 
or child hurt. The destruction of these places 
astonished the whole country beyond description. 
In addition to the distance and difficulty of access 
to their strongly-fortified positions, they looked 
for protection from the bore that usually ran up 
the Sarebus, and which they imagined none but 
their own boats could manage. As the different 
Malay chiefs heard that in ten- days a handful of 
white men had totally destroyed their strongholds, 
they shook their heads, and exclaimed, "God is 
great !" and the Dyaks declared that the Tuan 
Besar (Mr. Brooke) had charmed the river to 



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68 DEATH OF DR. SIMPSON. 

quiet the bore, 1 and that the whites were invul- 
nerable. Although this expedition would have a 
great moral effect on all the more respectable and 
thinking natives, inasmuch as the inhabitants of 
the places destroyed were looked upon, from the 
large proportion of Malays, as more civilised than 
their formidable and savage neighbours, the Dyaks 
inhabiting the Sakarran river ; still it was not 
to be supposed, when the settlements of Paddi, 
Pakoo, and Rembas, could not be responsible for 
the good behaviour of one another, that it was pro- 
bable the severe lesson taught them would have 
any great effect on the Sakarrans. 

On regaining the tope at Boling, we found 
our assistant-surgeon, Dr. Simpson, who had been 
left in charge of the sick, laid up with fever and 
ague. For conveniency's sake, the wounded men 
had been removed to a large native boat ; and 
while the doctor was passing along the edge of 
the boat, his foot slipped, he fell overboard, and 
not being much of a swimmer, and a strong tide 
running, he was a good while in the water, though 
a native went after him. He had for some time 
past been in bad health; but the cold he then 
caught brought on inflammation in the lungs, 
under the effects of which he sank soon after our 
return to Singapore. Poor Simpson I he was not 
only clever in his profession, but endeared to us all 

1 It had never been known so quiet as during the days we 
were up their river. 



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TRIUMPHAL RETURN. 69 

by his kind and gentle manner, so grateful to the 
sick. There were few of us while in China who 
had not come under his hands, and experienced his 
tender, soothing, and unremitting attention. 

We now gave our native followers permission 
to depart to their respective homes, which they 
did loaded with plunder, usually in India called 
loot; ourselves getting under weigh to rejoin the 
Dido off the island of Burong, and from thence we 
proceeded to the mouth of the Morotaba, where, 
leaving the ship, Mr. Brooke and I went in my 
boat, with two others in attendance, to take leave 
of the Rajah, prior to my return to Singapore and 
China. Although the greater part of the native 
boats attached to the expedition had already ar- 
rived at Sarawak, the Rajah had sent them back, 
some miles down the river, with as many others 
as he could collect, gorgeously dressed Out with 
flags, to meet Mr. Brooke and myself, the heroes 
of the grandest expedition that had ever been 
known in the annals of Malayan history. Our 
approach to the grand city was, to them, most 
triumphant, although to us a nuisance. From the 
moment we entered the last reach, the saluting 
from every gun in the capital that could be fired 
without bursting was incessant ; and as we neared 
the royal residence, the yells, meant for cheers, 
and the beating of gongs, intended to be a sort 
of " See, the conquering hero comes," were quite 
deafening. The most minute particulars of our 



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70 MR. BROOKE. 

deeds, of course greatly exaggerated, had been 
detailed, long before our arrival, by the native 
chiefs, who were eye-witnesses ; and when we Were 
seated in the Rajah's presence, the royal counte- 
nance relaxed into a smile of real pleasure as he 
turned his wondering eyes from Mr. . Brooke to 
myself and back again. I suppose be thought 
a great deal of us, as he said little or nothing ; 
and as we were rather huilgry after our pull, 
we were very glad to get away once more to Mr. 
Brooke's hospitable board, to which we did ample 
justice. 

My stay at Sarawak was but of short duration, 
as, before I had time to carry out the arrangements 
I had made to put down this horrid traffic, the 
Dido was, owing to some changes in the distribu- 
tion of the fleet, recalled to China. 

As the tide would not suit for my return to the 
Dido until two o'clock the following morning, we 
sat up until that hour; when, with mutual regret, 
we parted. I had just seen enough of Borneo 
and my enterprising friend Mr. Brooke, to feel the 
deepest interest in both. No description of mine 
can in any way give my readers a proper idea of 
the character of the man I had just then left ; and 
however interesting his journal may appear in the 
reading, it is only by being in his company, and by 
hearing him advocate the cause of the persecuted 
inland natives, and listening to his • vivid arid fair 
description of the beautiful country he has adopted, 



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THE NATIVES. 71 

that one can be made to enter fully into and feel 
what I would fain describe, but cannot. 

We parted ; and I did not then expect to be 
able so soon to return and finish what I had intend- 
ed, viz. the complete destruction of the strongholds 
belonging to the worst among the pirate hordes, so 
long the terror of the coast, either by capturing or 
driving from the country the piratical Seriffs Sahib 
and Muller, by whose evil influence they had been 
chiefly kept up. From all that I had seen, the 
whole country appeared to be a large garden, with 
a rich and varied soil, capable of producing any 
thing. The natives, especially the mountain Dyaks, 
are industrious, willing, inoffensive, although a 
persecuted race ; and the only things wanted to 
make the country the most productive and happiest 
in the world were, the suppression of piracy, good 
government, and opening a trade with the interior, 
which could not fail of success. All these I saw 
partially begun; and I felt assured that with the 
assistance of a vessel of war, and the countenance 
only of the government, Mr. Brooke would, although 
slowly yet surely, bring about their happy consum- 
mation. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

Captain Keppel sails for China. Calcutta. The Dido ordered to 
Borneo again. Arrival at Sarawak. Effect of her presence 
at Sarawak. Great improvements visible. Atrocities of 
the Sakarran pirates. Mr. Brooke's letter. Captain Sir 
E. Belcher's previous visit to Sarawak in the Samarang. 
Coal found. Second letter from the Rajah Muda Hassim. 
Expedition against the Sakarran pirates. Patusen destroyed. 
Macota remembered, and his retreat burnt. Further fight- 
ing, and advance. Ludicrous midnight alarm. 

June 24<th. — I reached the Dido at 8 o'clock, and 
immediately got under weigh. After remaining 
twenty-four hours to water at Singapore, I sailed 
for Hong Kong. My time, during the year that I 
was absent from Borneo, if not quite so usefully, 
was not unpleasantly passed. We lay a few months 
in the Canton river. In addition to having good 
opportunities of seeing the natives of China in their 
domestic state, I witnessed one of those most cu- 
rious and extraordinary sights that occasionally 
occur during the winter months in the city of 
Canton, namely, a fire. The one I saw was 
about the most extensive that had ever been ex- 
perienced ; and the Dido's crew had the gratifica- 
tion of being of some assistance in the protection 



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INDIA. 73 

of British property. From China the Dido ac- 
companied the commander-in-chief, in the Corn- 
wallis, to the Spanish colony at Manilla, which is 
a place that few forget ; and a short description 
of our visit there has been given in an interest- 
ing little work, written by Captain Cunynghame. 
On my return to Hong Kong, I had the gratifi- 
cation of receiving on board the Dido, Major- 
General Lord Saltoun and his staff, consisting of 
two old and esteemed friends of mine, Captain, 
now Major Arthur Cunynghame, his lordship's aide- 
de-camp, and Major Grant, of the 9th Lancers, 
who had been adjutant-general to the forces. A 
more agreeable cruise at sea I never experienced. 
We called at the Island of Pinang, in the Ma- 
lacca Straits, on our way, where we again fell 
in with the Admiral ; and I was most agreeably 
surprised at meeting my friend Mr. Brooke, who 
had come on to Singapore to meet Sir William 
Parker, and had followed him up in the Wan- 
derer, commanded by my friend Captain Henry 
Seymour, — that vessel, in company with the Harle- 
quin, Captain the Hon. George Hastings, and the 
H.C. steamer Diana, having just returned from 
an expedition to Acheen, whither they had been 
despatched by the commander-in-chief, to inquire 
into and demand redress for an act of piracy, 
committed on an English merchant- vessel. An 
account of the expedition has already been pub- 
lished. The pirates had made a desperate resist* 



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74 CALCUTTA. 

ance, and several lives were lost, and many severely 
wounded on our side; among. the latter was my 
friend Mr. Brooke (in the head and arm), for 
which I took the liberty of giving him a lecture 
on his rashness, he having quite sufficient ground 
lor fighting over in his newly-adopted country. 
He was much pleased at the Admiral's having 
promised that the Dido should return again to 
the Straits station as soon as she had completed 
her voyage to Calcutta. 

On the 11th March, 1844, we anchored off 
the grand City of Palaces, and well does it merit 
the name. We could not have timed our visit 
better. The Governor-General, the Earl of Ellen- 
borough, was being feted on his return from the 
frontiers, which fetes were continued on the. ar- 
rival, a few days after ourselves, of the Corn- 
wallis at Kedgeree, when the flag erf Sir William 
Parker was shifted to the Dido. The Admiral 
experienced the same style of hospitable entertain- 
ment that had previously been. given to General 
Sir Hugh Gfough on his return from the. Chinese 
expedition. At Calcutta I was kindly invited by 
the " Tent Club," and introduced to that noble 
and most exciting of all field-sports, " Hog-hunt- 
ing in .India;" but with which the pleasures of 
the day did not cease. The subsequent convivial 
meeting was a thing not easily to be forgotten. 
Although under a tent pitched by the edge of the 
jungle, thirty miles from the city, none of the 



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ANOTHER EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. J5 

comforts of the house werfc wanting; there were 
the punkah, and the hookah, those luxuries of the 
East, to say nothing of heaps of ice from the far 
West, which aided considerably th§ consumption 
of champagne and claret; and to better all these 
good things, ^every man brought with him the will 
and the power to please and to be pleased. 

A few days before my departure from Cal- 
cutta, the Governor-GeneraJ, finding it necessary 
to send treasure to China, the Admiral desired 
me to receive it on board. Although a. welcome 
cargo, it delayed for a couple . of months my re- 
turn to Borneo* I found Mr. Brooke awaiting 
my arrival at Singapore ^ but as I could not then 
receive him on board,. Captain Hastings took him 
over to Sarawak in the Harlequin* 

On arriving at Hong Kong, Bear- Admiral Sir 
T. Cochrane appointed Mr. Frederick Wade as 
first lieutenant, Lieutenant Wilmot Horton having 
been promoted to the rank of commander, for his 
gallant defence when the Dido's boats were at- 
tacked by the very superior force of pirates off the 
island of Sirhassan. 

Having landed the treasure at Hong Kong, 
and completed stores and provisions, I sailed from 
Macao on 21st June; and .working down against 
the [monsoon,* arrived at Singapore on the 18th 
July. I here found letters from Mr. Brooke, 
stating that the Sakarrans had been out in great 
force; and although he was not aware of any 



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76 ARRIVAL AT SARAWAK. 

danger to himself or his settlement, still, by com- 
ing over quickly, I might have a fair chance of 
catching and crushing them in the very act of 
piracy. I lost no time in preparing for another 
expedition. The government at Calcutta had be- 
come fully sensible of the necessity of protecting 
the native trade to Singapore, and had sent down 
the Phlegethon steamer, of light draught of water, 
and better adapted to service in the straits or 
rivers than any of her Majesty's larger vessels. 
She was, moreover, fitted in every way for the 
peculiar service on which she was to be em- 
ployed, with a zealous, experienced, and active 
Commander, F. Scott, 1 as well as a fine enterpris- 
ing set of young officers. I lost no time in making 
application for her to the resident councillor, Mr. 
Church (in the absence of Colonel Butterworth, 
the Governor of the Straits), who immediately 
placed her at my disposal ; and with such means* 
I was anxious to commence operations as speedily 
as possible, leaving the Vixen and Wolverine to 
perform the other duties of the station. 

Thursday, 25th July. — Sailed from Singapore, 
having despatched the Phlegethon the previous 
night, with orders to rendezvous at the entrance 
to the Morotaba, which we entered in the evening 
of the 29th ; and anchoring the ship inside the 
river, I went on in the steamer to within four 

1 I have lately heard, with much regret, of the death of this 
valuable officer. 



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ARRIVAL AT SARAWAK. 77 

miles of Sarawak, when I pulled up in my gig, 
accompanied by the Dido's pinnace, that I might, 
by firing her carronade as a signal, be enabled to 
give notice of our approach, not feeling myself 
quite secure from a shot from the forts, which 
were very judiciously placed so as to command 
the last reach approaching the town, as I knew 
that before Mr, Brooke's return they had been 
put in a state of defence, and a regular watch 
kept, by self-appointed officers, sleeping on their 
arms. I, however, got up without accident, in 
time to receive a hearty welcome, about daylight. 

Not expecting to revisit Borneo during the 
period that the ship had to run before completing 
her usual time of commission, it was gratifying 
for me to read in my friend's journal, alluding to 
my former visit : " I came myself in the Dido ; 
and I may say that her appearance was the con- 
summation of my enterprise." " The natives saw 
directly that there was a force to protect and to 
punish ; and most of the chiefs, conscious of their 
evil ways, trembled ; Muda Hassim was gratified, 
and felt that this power would exalt his authority 
both in Borneo and along the coast, and he was 
not slow in magnifying the force of the Dido. 
The state in which Captain Keppel and his offi- 
cers visited the Rajah all heightened the effect ; 
and the marines and the band excited the admi- 
ration and the fears of the natives, I felt the 
Rajah's hand tremble at the first interview; and 



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78 EFFECT OF THE DIDO's PRESENCE. 

not all the well-known command of countenance, 
of which the natives are masters, could conceal his 
emotion/' 

Gentle reader, excuse my vanity if I continue 
a little further with my friend's journal, although 
it gets rather personal : 

"I believe the first emotion was any thing but 
pleasurable ; but Captain Keppel's conciliatory and 
kind manner soon removed any feeling of fear, and 
was all along of the greatest use to me in our sub- 
sequent doings. The first qualification, in dealing 
with a Malay, is a kind and gentle manner; for 
their habitual politeness is such that they are hurt 
by the ordinary brusquerie of the European. 

"I shall not go over the chase of the three 
boats of the Balagnini pirates, or the attack made 
on the Dido's boats by the Sirhassan people* except 
to remark that, in the latter case, I am sure Lieu- 
tenant Horton acted rightly in sparing their lives 
and property; for, with these occasional pirates, a 
severe lesson, followed by that degree of concilia- 
tion and pardon which shall best ensure a correc- 
tion <rf their vices, is far wiser and preferable to a 
course of undistinguishing severity." 

I found Sarawak much altered for the better, 
and the population considerably increased. Mr. 
Brooke had established : himself in a new house 
built on a beautiful and elevated mound, from 
which the intriguing Macota had just been ejected 
on my first visit. Neat and pretty-looking little 



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SERIFF SAHIB. 79 

Swiss cottages had sprung up on all the most pic- 
turesque spots, which gave it quite a European 
look. He had also made an agreeable addition to 
his English society ; and a magazine of English 
merchandise had been opened to trade with the 
natives ; together mth many other improvements. 

On the other hand, Seriff Sahib* not de- 
terred, as T had anticipated he would be, by the 
example I made of his neighbours in the Sarebus, 
had taken measures for withdrawing from the ad- 
joining river of Sadong, where he had been living 
in a comparatively unguarded state, and had, dur- 
ing the last nine months, been making busy pre- 
parations for fortifying himself at a place called 
Patusen, up the Batang Lupar. He had lately 
got things in a forward state, had called out a 
large fleet of Sakarrans as an escort; and being 
pufled up with his own power and importance, had 
thought proper to prolong the performance of his 
voyage, of about 100 miles, from his residence 
in Sadong to his fortified position at Patusen, for 
three weeks or a month, during which time he had 
despatched small parties of his fleet, which con- 
sisted of upwards of 150 war-prahus, on piratical 
excursions. These robbers had, in addition to 
their piracies on the high seas, scoured the coast 
in all directions, and committed the greatest atro- 
cities, attended with some of the most cruel mur- 
ders. One sample will be sufficient to shew their 



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80 SAKARRAN ATROCITIES. 

brutal character : — A detachment of three of their 
boats, having obtained information that a poor 
Dyak family, belonging to a tribe in Mr. Brooke's 
territory, had come down from their mountain to 
cultivate a small portion of land nearer the coast, 
and, for their better security, had made their 
dwelling in the upper branches of a large tree on 
the outskirts of the forest, determined to destroy 
them. Their little children were playing in the 
jungle when the pirates were seen approaching the 
tree with their diabolical war-yells. As the poor 
man did not descend immediately on being sum- 
moned, he was shot ; when other ruffians, to save 
their ammunition, mounted the tree, murdered the 
woman, and returned in triumph to their boats 
with the heads of both victims. The children* who 
had witnessed this from their hiding-places, suc- 
ceeded in getting to Sarawak. 

Taking advantage of Mr. Brooke's unusually 
long absence, Sarawak itself was threatened, and 
open defiance hurled at any European force that 
should dare approach Patusen. Reports, too, had 
been industriously spread that Mr. Brooke never 
intended to return ; and when he did get back to 
his home, he found the town guarded and watched 
like a besieged city. With his usual nerve and 
decision he withdrew his men from the forts, and 
sent to Seriff Sahib to inform him that he should 
suffer for his temerity. 



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mr. brooke's letter. 81 

A letter I received from him is so characteristic, 
and gives so lively a description of these events, 
that I am tempted to print it : 

" Sarawak, 26th May, 1844. 

cc My dear Keppel, — It is useless applying a 
spur to a willing horse; so I will only tell you 
that there is plenty to do here, and the sooner you 
can come the hetter for all of us, especially your 
poor friends the Dyaks. Bring with you as much 
force as you can to attack Sakarran. 

" The case stands thus : Seriff Sahib, quite 
frightened at Sadong since last year, enraged like- 
wise at his loss of power and his incapability of 
doing mischief, collected all the Sakarran Dyaks, 
and was joined by many of the Dyaks of Sarebus 
and some Balows. He likewise had a good many 
Malays, and bullied every one in his vicinity. This 
force met at the entrance of the Sadong Delta, and 
committed depredations. They were not less than 
200 Dyak boats and some 15 or 20 armed Malay 
prahus, besides others. Just as they were col- 
lected, the Harlequin appeared off the coast; and 
had the Dido been with us, we might have had 
them all; but the opportunity will never again 
occur. Seriff Sahib, with this force, has started 
to-day for Sakarran, and I was not strong enough 
with my eight native boats to attack him: It is 
really greatly to be lamented, because we should 
most completely have crushed the head of the 

VOL. II. g 



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82 mr. Brooke's letter. 

snake. We must, however, make the best of it. 
It is his intention, on his arrival at Sakarran, 
to fortify and wait for our attack; and in the 
mean time to send out his Dyaks along the coast 
and inland to such places as they dare venture 
to attack. 

"Come, then, my dear Keppel, for there is 
plenty to do for all hands. I have ordered a gun- 
boat from Mr. Goldie to make our force stronger ; 
and had I possessed such a one the day before 
yesterday, I would have pulled away for the Sa- 
dong to-day. 

" My regards to all. I still propose Pepper-Pot 
Hall for your residence. I only wish I felt quite 
sure that Fortune had it in store that you would 
be here on your return from China. That dame, 
however, seems to delight in playing me slippery 
tricks just at present ; and never was the time 
and tide so missed before, which would have led to 
fortune, as the other day. All the Queen's ships 
and all the Queen's men could not bring such a 
chance together again. — Ever, my dear Keppel, 
your sincere friend, 

"J. Brooke. 

" Captain the Hon. Henry KeppeL" 

No one could have been more disappointed or 
have regretted more than my gallant friend Cap- 
tain Hastings, that his orders did not admit of any 
delay, or of his attacking that redoubtable pirate 



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WARLIKE PREPARATIONS. 83 

Seriff Sahib, especially as he had a small score to 
settle with that kind of gentry, having had his 
first-lieutenant, H. Chads, severely wounded in two 
places, and several men killed, in the affair at 
Acheen Head. It was, however, all for the best, 
as the few boats that the Harlequin could have 
sent would have stood but a poor chance against 
upwards of 200 war-prahus, all fitted and prepared 
for fight. 

On the 1st of August, with the Dido and 
Phlegethon at anchor off Sarawak, the warlike 
preparations were going on rapidly. I had saluted 
and paid my visit to Muda Hassim ; he was de- 
lighted to see me again, and we went through the 
form of holding several conferences of war in his 
divan. He appears to be a good well-meaning 
man, well inclined towards the English, moder- 
ately honest, and, if roused, I daresay not with- 
out animal courage ; and altogether, with the as- 
sistance of his clever younger brother, Budrudeen, 
a very fit person to govern that part of Borneo of 
which he is Kajah. 

During my absence, Sarawak had been visited 
by H.M.S. Samarang, Captain Sir Edward Belcher, 
who had received directions to call on and com- 
municate with Mr. Brooke. In dropping down the 
river the Samarang grounded on a long shelf of 
rocks, at the top of high water, and with the ebb- 
tide rolled over, filling with the succeeding flood. 
She was nearly a fortnight in this position; but 



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84 SECOND LETTER FROM MUDA HASSIM. 

was ultimately saved by the skill and almost un- 
paralleled perseverance (aided by such assistance 
of men and spars as Mr. Brooke could afford) of 
her captain, officers, and crew — a feat that must 
have given the natives a good idea of what Bri- 
tish seamen are capable of. This accident de- 
layed for a short time a visit that was afterwards 
made by Sir Edward Belcher, accompanied by Mr. 
Brooke, to Borneo Proper. A hurried inspection 
of the capabilities of that part of the coast took 
place ; and the fact of there being coal on the island 
was ascertained. 

I received a second letter from Muda Hassim, 
of which the following is a translation : 

" This comes from Pangeran Muda Hassim, 
Rajah of Borneo, to our friend Captain 
Keppel, in command of Her Britannic 
Majesty's ship. 

(After the usual compliments): 

"We beg to let our friend Captain Keppel 
know, that the pirates of Sakarran, whom we men- 
tioned last year, still continue their piracies by 
sea and land ; and that ihany Malays, under Seriff 
Sahib, who have been accustomed to send or to 
accompany the pirates and to share in their spoils, 
have gone to the Sakarran river, with a resolve 
of defending themselves rather than accede to our 
wishes that they should abandon piracy. 



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EXPEDITION AGAINST SAKARRAN. 85 

"Last year Captain Belcher told the Sultan and 
myself, that it would be pleasing to the Queen of 
England that we should repress piracy ; and we 
signed an agreement, at his request, in which we 
promised to do so ; and we tell our friend of the 
piracies and evil actions of the Sakarran people, 
who have, for many years past, done much mischief 
to trade, and make it dangerous for boats to sail 
along the coast ; and this year many prahus, which 
wanted to sail to Singapore, have been afraid. We 
inform our friend Captain Keppel of this, as we 
desire to end all the piracy, and to perform our 
agreement with the Queen of England. " 

Monday y 5th August, 1844, being the morning 
fixed for the departure of our expedition against 
the Sakarran pirates, the Phlegethon steamer 
weighed at 8 o'clock, and proceeded down the 
river to await at the mouth the collection of our 
force. Among those who accompanied us from 
Sarawak, was the Pangeran Budrudeen, the intel- 
ligent brother of the Rajah already noticed. This 
was a great and unusual event in the royal family ; 
and the departure from the Rajah's wharf, which 
I viewed from Mr. Brooke's house, on the opposite 
bank of the river, was intended to be very im- 
posing. The barge of state was decked out with 
banners and canopies ; all the chiefs attended, 
with the Arab priest Mudlana at their head, and 



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86 A SPY. 

the barge pushed off amidst the firing of cannon, 
and a general screech, invoking the blessing of 
Mahomet. 

Having seen the last boat off, Mr. Brooke and 
myself took our departure in the gig, when another 
and last farewell salute was fired from the Rajah's 
wharf. 

Three hours brought us to the steamer, an- 
chored off the fishing-huts at the mouth of the 
river. Here we heard that a small boat from the 
enemy's country had, under the pretence of tra- 
ding, just been in to spy into our force, but de- 
camped again on the appearance of the steamer. 
We now all got fairly away together, the smaller 
boats keeping near the shoals in shore, while the 
steamer was obliged to make an offing some miles 
from the coast. From the masthead we distinctly 
made out the small boat that had left the mouth 
of the river before, both pulling and sailing in 
the direction of the Batang Lupar, up which the 
Sakarran country lies ; and as it was desirable 
that the pirates should not get information of 
our approach, at dusk, being well in advance, and 
our auxiliary force following, I despatched Mr. 
Brooke's Singapore sampan and one of the Dido's 
cutters in chase. At half-past nine we anchored 
in the stream within the entrance. 

We were fortunate at Sarawak in picking up 
two excellent and intelligent pilots, who had long 



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ARRIVE AT THE LINGA. 87 

known the whole river, and had themselves been 
several times forced to serve in the boats while on 
their piratical excursions* 

Tuesday, 6th. — With the flood-tide arrived all 
the well-appointed and imposing little fleet, and 
with them the cutter and sampan with two out 
of the three men belonging to the boat of which 
they had been in chase ; the third having been 
speared by Seboo, on shewing a Strong inclination 
to run a-muck in his own boat, i. e. to sell his 
life as dearly as he could. From these men we 
obtained information that Seriff Sahib was fully 
prepared for defence — that his harem had been 
removed — and that he would fight to the last. 
We also learned that Macota, better known among 
us by the name of the " Serpent," and often men- 
tioned in Mr. Brooke's journal, was the principal 
adviser, in whose house the councils of war were 
generally held. 

We anchored, in the afternoon, off the mouth 
of the river Linga ; and while there we despatched 
a messenger to Seriff Jaffer to caution him against 
giving any countenance or support to either of the 
Seriffs,. Sahib and Muller, on whose punishment 
and destruction we were determined. 

The Batang Lupar, as far as this, is a mag- 
nificent river, from three to four miles wide, and, 
in most parts, from five to seven fathoms water. 

Wednesday j 7 th. — We weighed at daylight, but 
were obliged to anchor again before appearing in 



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88 ATTACK ON PATUSEN. 

sight of Patusen, until the tide should rise suffici- 
ently to enable us to pass a long flat shoal, over 
which, during the spring-tides, a bore rushes with 
frightful velocity. 

We now collected our boats, and made our 
arrangements as well as we could, for attacking 
a place we had not yet seen. We had now a 
little more difficulty in keeping our native force 
back, as many of those who had accompanied the 
expedition last year had gained so much confidence 
that the desire of plunder exceeded the feeling of 
fear. 

After weighing at 11, with a strong tide sweep- 
ing us up, we were not many minutes in coming 
in sight of the fortifications of Patusen ; and in- 
deed they were not to be despised. There were 
five of them, two not quite finished. Getting 
suddenly into six-feet water, we anchored the 
steamer ; not so formidable a berth, although well 
within musket-range, as we might have taken up 
had I been aware of the increasing depth of water 
nearer the town j but we approached so rapidly 
there was no time to wait the interpretation of the 
pilot's information. 

The Dido and Phlegethon's boats were not 
long in forming alongside. They were directed to 
pull in shore, and then attack the forts in succes- 
sion ; but my gallant first-lieutenant, Wade, who 
had the command, was the first to break the line, 
and pull directly in the face of the largest fort. 



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CASUALTIES. 89 

His example was followed by the others ; and di- 
viding, each boat pulled for that which appeared 
to the officer in command to be the one most likely 
to make a good fight. The forts were the first to 
open fire on both steamer and boats, which was 
quickly and smartly returned. It is impossible 
to imagine a prettier sight than it was from the top 
of the Phlegethon's paddle-box. It was my inten- 
tion to have fired on the enemy from the -steamer, so 
as to draw their attention off the boats ; but owing 
to the defective state of the detonating priming- 
tubes, the guns from the vessel did not go off, and 
the boats had all the glory to themselves. 

They never once checked in their advance; 
but the moment they touched the shore the crews 
rushed up, entering the forts at the embrasures, 
while the pirates fled by the rear. 

In this sharp and short affair we had but one 
man killed, poor John Ellis, a fine young man, 
and captain of the main- top in the Dido. He was 
cut in two by a cannon-shot while in the act of 
ramming home a cartridge in the bow-gun of the 
Jolly Bachelor. Standing close to poor Ellis at the 
fatal moment was a fine promising young middy, 
Charles Johnson, a nephew of Mr. Brooke's, who 
fortunately escaped unhurt. This, and two others 
badly wounded, were the only accidents on our 
side. 

Our native allies were not long in following 
our men on shore. The killed and wounded on 



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90 ATTACK ANOTHER TOWN. 

the part of the pirates must have been consider- 
able. Our followers got several heads. There were 
no fewer than sixty-four brass guns of different 
sizes, besides many iron, found in and about the 
forts : the latter we spiked and threw into the 
river. The town was very extensive ; and after 
being well looted, made a glorious blaze. 

Our Sarawak followers, both Malays and Dy- 
aks, behaved with the greatest gallantry, and dashed 
in under the fire of the forts. In fact, like their 
country, any thing might be made of them under a 
good government ; and such is their confidence in 
Mr. Brooke's judgment, and their attachment to 
his person, that he might safely defy in his own 
stronghold the attacks of any foreign power. 

After our men had dined, and had a short rest 
during the heat of the day, we landed our whole 
force in two divisions — and a strange but formid- 
able-looking force they made — to attack a town 
situated about two miles up, on the left bank of a 
small river called the Grahan, the entrance to 
which had been guarded by the forts ; and imme- 
diately after their capture the tide had fallen too 
low for our boats to get up. Facing the stream, 
too, was a long stockade; so that we determined 
on attacking the place in the rear, wliich, had 
the pirates only waited to receive us, would have 
caused a very interesting skirmish. They, how- 
ever, decamped, leaving every thing behind them. 
In this town we found Seriff Sahib's residence, 



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PLUNDER. 91 

and, among other things, all his curious and ex- 
tensive wardrobe. It was ridiculous to see our 
Dyaks dressed out in all the finery and plunder of 
this noted pirate, whose very name, a few days 
previous, would have made them tremble. Goats 
and poultry there were in abundance. We like- 
wise found a magazine in the rear of the SeriiFs 
house, containing about two tons of gunpowder; 
also a number of small barrels of fine powder, 
branded 'Dartford/ in exactly the same state as 
it had left the manufactory in England. It being 
too troublesome and heavy to convey on board 
the steamer, and each of our native followers 
staggering up to his knees in mud, under a 
heavy load of plunder, I had it thrown into the 
river. It was evident how determined the chief 
had been to defend himself, as, besides the de- 
fences already completed, eight others, in different 
states of forwardness, were in the course of erec- 
tion; and had the attack been delayed a few 
weeks, Patusen would not have been carried by 
boats without considerable loss of life. It was the 
key to this extensive river ; the resort of the worst 
of pirates ; and each chief had contributed his 
share of guns and ammunition towards its forti- 
fication and defence. 

We returned to our boats and evening meal 
rather fatigued, but much pleased with our day's 
work, after ascending near seventy miles from the 
mouth of the river. The habitations of 5000 



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92 MACOTA. 

pirates had been burnt to the ground j four strong 
forts destroyed, together with several hundred 
boats ; upwards of sixty brass cannons captured, 
and about a fourth that number of iron spiked 
and thrown into the river, besides vast quantities 
of other arms and ammunition j and the powerful 
Seriff Sahib, the great pirate-patron for the last 
twenty years, ruined past recovery, and driven to 
hide his diminished head in the jungle. 

The 8th and 9th were passed in burning and 
destroying the rest of the straggling town, and a 
variety of smaller boats, which were very numerous. 
I had also an account to settle with that cunning 
rascal Macota, for his aiding and abetting Seriff 
Sahib in his piracies. He had located himself 
very pleasantly near a bend in the river, about a 
mile above Seriff Sahib's settlement, and was in 
the act of building extensive fortifications, when 
I had the satisfaction of anticipating the visit and 
some of the compliments he would have conferred 
on my friend Mr. Brooke at Sarawak. Budrudeen, 
the Rajah's brother, had likewise been duped by 
this fellow, and was exceedingly anxious to insert 
the blade of a very sharp and beautiful kris into 
the body of his late friend. Mr. Brooke, however, 
was anxious to save his life, which he afterwards 
had the satisfaction of doing. I shall never forget 
the tiger-like look of the young Pangeran when 
we landed together in the hopes of surprising the 
" Serpent" in his den ; but he was too quick for 



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ADVANCE UPON SAKARRAN. 93 

us, having decamped with his followers, and in so 
great a hurry as to leave all his valuables behind, 
— among them a Turkish pipe, some chairs once 
belonging to the Royalist, and other presents from 
Mr. Brooke. Every thing belonging to him was 
burnt or destroyed save some handsome brass 
guns. There was one of about 12 cwt. that had 
been lent by the Sultan when Macota was in fa- 
vour, and which I returned to Budrudeen for his 
brother. 

We were here joined by a large number of the 
Linga Dyaks, the same force that had joined us 
the year previous, while up the Sarebus, but un- 
accompanied by Seriff Jaffer, of whom it was not 
quite clear that he had not been secretly aiding 
the pirates* I sent them back with assurances to 
their chiefs that they should not be molested un- 
less they gave shelter or protection to either Seriff 
Sahib or Muller. Seriff Sahib, with a consider- 
able body of followers, escaped inland in the direc- 
tion of the mountains, from the other side of which 
he would be able to communicate with the river 
Linga. Macota was obliged to fly up the river 
towards the Undop, on which the village and re- 
sidence of Seriff Sahib's brother, Seriff Muller, 
was situated. 

Having destroyed every boat and sampan, as 
well as house or hut, — on the 10th, as soon as 
the tide had risen sufficiently to take us over the 
shoals, we weighed, in the steamer, for the coun- 



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94 DISTURBED STATE OF THE COUNTRY. 

try of the Sakarran Dyaks, having sent the boats 
on before with the first of the flood. 

About fifteen miles above Patusen is the 
branch of the river called the Undop : up this 
river I despatched Lieutenant Tumour, with Mr. 
Comber, in the Jolly Bachelor, and a division of 
our native boats, while we proceeded to where the 
river again branches off to the right and left, as 
on the tongue of land so formed we understood 
we should find a strong fort ; besides, it was the 
highest point to which we could attempt to take 
the steamer. The branch to the left is called 
the Sakarran ; that to the right retains the name 
of Lupar, inhabited chiefly by Sakarrans. We 
found the place deserted and the houses empty. 
Knowing that these people depended almost en- 
tirely for protection on the strongly fortified posi- 
tion at Patusen, I did not expect any similar 
opposition from either Seriff Muller or the des-v 
perate bloodthirsty Sakarrans, and consequently 
divided my force into three divisions — the one, 
already mentioned, under Lieutenant Tumour, up 
the Undop; another, under Mr. D'Aeth, up the 
Lupar j while Lieutenant Wade, accompanied by 
Mr. Brooke, ascended the Sakarran. I had not 
calculated on the disturbed and excited state in 
which I found the country ; and two wounded men 
having been sent back from the Undop branch 
with accounts of the pirates, chiefly Malays/ who 
were collected in great numbers, both before and 



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PATINGI ALL 95 

in the rear of our small force ; and an attempt 
having heen made to cut off the bearer of this in- 
formation, Nakodah Bahar, who had had a very 
narrow escape, and had no idea of taking back an 
answer unless attended by a European force, — I 
determined on sending assistance. But I had 
some difficulty in mustering another crew from 
the steamer, and was obliged to leave my friend 
Capt. Scott, with only the idlers, rather critically 
situated. 

I deemed it advisable to re-collect my whole 
force ; and before proceeding to the punishment 
of the Sakarrans, to destroy the power and in- 
fluence of Seriff M uller, whose town was situated 
about twenty miles up, and was said to contain a 
population of 1500 Malays, independently of the 
surrounding Dyak tribes. Having despatched 
boats with directions to Lieutenant Wade and 
Mr. D'Aeth to join us in the Undop, I proceeded 
in my gig to the scene of action, leaving the 
steamer to maintain as strict a blockade of the 
Sakarran and Lupar branches as, with their re- 
duced force, they were capable of. On my join- 
ing Lieutenant Tumour, I found him just returned 
from a very spirited attack which he had made, as- 
sisted by Mr. Comber, on a stockade situated on 
the summit of a steep hill ; Mr. Allen, the master, 
being still absent on a similar service, on the oppo- 
site side of the river. The gallant old chief Patingi 
Ail was likewise absent, in pursuit of the enemy 



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96 APPROACH SERIFF MULLER's TOWN. 

that had been driven from the stockades, with 
whom he had had a hand-to-hand fight, the whole 
of which — being on the rising ground — was wit- 
nessed by our boats' crews, who could not resist 
hailing his return from his gallant achievement 
with three hearty British cheers. This had the 
effect of giving such an impulse to his courage, 
that, in a subsequent affair, it unhappily caused 
a serious loss among this active and useful branch 
of our force. 

We had now to unite in cutting our way 
through a barrier across the river similar to that 
described in the attack on the Sarebus, which 
having passed, we brought up for the night close 
to a still more serious obstacle, being a number of 
huge trees felled, the branches of which meeting 
midway in the river, formed apparently an insur- 
mountable obstacle to our progress. But " patience 
and perseverance overcome all difficulties ;" and 
by night only three of the trees remained to be 
cleared away. We were now within a short dis- 
tance of their town, so that we could distinctly 
hear the noise and confusion which our advance 
had occasioned. On the right bank, and about 
fifty yards in advance of the barrier, stood a farm- 
house, which we considered it prudent to occupy 
for the night, for which advanced post we col- 
lected about fifty volunteers. These consisted of 
Messrs. Steward, Williamson, and Comber ; a cor* 
poral and four marines; my gig's qrewj and a 



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MIDNIGHT ALARM. 97 

medley of picked men from our Dyak and Malay 
followers ; not forgetting my usual and trusty at- 
tendant John Eager with his bugle, the sounding 
of which was to be the signal for the whole force 
to come to the rescue, in the event of surprise — 
not at all improbable from the nature of our war- 
fare and our proximity to the enemy's town. 

And here a most ludicrous scene occurred dur- 
ing the night. Having placed our sentries and 
look-out men, and given "Tiga" as the watch- 
word, we were, shortly after midnight, suddenly 
aroused from sound sleep by a Dyak war-yell, 
which was immediately responded to by the whole 
force. It was pitch dark: the interior of our 
farmhouse, the partitions of which had been re- 
moved for the convenience of stowage, was crowded 
to excess. In a moment every man was on his 
legs: swords, spears, and krisses dimly glittered 
over our heads. It is impossible to describe the 
excitement and confusion of the succeeding ten 
minutes : one and all believed that we had been 
surrounded by the enemy, and cut off from our 
main party. I had already thrust the muzzle of 
my pistol close to the heads of several natives, 
whom, in the confusion, I had mistaken for Sakar- 
rans ; and as each in his turn called out " Tiga," 
I withdrew my weapon to apply it to somebody 
else : until at last, we found that we were all 
"Tigas." I had prevented Eager, more than 
once, from sounding the alarm, which, from the 

VOL. II. H 



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98 MIDNIGHT ALARM. 

first, he had not ceased to press me for permission 
to do. The Dyak yell had, however, succeeded 
in throwing the whole force afloat into a similar 
confusion, and not hearing the signal, they con- 
cluded that they, and not we, were the party at- 
tacked. The real cause we afterwards ascertained 
to have arisen from the ^larm of a Dyak, who 
dreamt, or imagined, that he felt a spear thrust 
upwards through the bamboo-flooring of our build- 
ing, and immediately gave his diabolical yell. The 
confusion was ten times as much as it would have 
been had the enemy really been there. So ended 
the- adventures of the night in the wild jungle of 
Borneo. 



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CHAPTER V. 

Seriff Muller's town sacked. Ascend the river in pursuit of the 
enemy. Gallant exploit of Lieutenant Wade. His death 
and funeral. Interesting anecdote of him. Ascend the Sa- 
karran branch. Native boats hemmed in by pirates, and 
their crews slaughtered to a man. Karangan destroyed. 
Captain Sir E. Belcher arrives in the Samarang's boats. Re« 
turn to Sarawak. New expedition against Seriffs Sahib and 
Jaffer. Macota captured. Flight of Seriff Sahib. Confer- 
ences. Seriff Jaffer deposed. Mr. Brooke's speech in the 
native tongue. End of the expedition, and return to Sarawak. 
The Dido sails for England. 

At daylight we were joined by Lieutenant Wade 
and Mr. Brooke — their division making a very 
acceptable increase to our force — and by 8 o'clock 
the last barrier was cut through between us and 
Seriff Muller's devoted town. With the excep- 
tion of his own house, from which some eight or 
nine Malays were endeavouring to move his effects, 
the whole place was deserted. They made no 
fight ; and an hour afterwards the town had been 
plundered and burnt. The only lives lost were 
a few unfortunates, who happened to come within 
range of our musketry in their exertions to save 
some of their master's property. A handsome 
large boat, belonging to that chief, was the only 



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100 PURSUIT OF SERIFF MULLER. 

thing saved ; and this I presented to Budrudeen. 
After a short delay in catching our usual supply of 
goats and poultry, with which the place abounded, 
we proceeded up the river in chase of the chief 
and his people ; and here again we had to en- 
counter the same obstacle presented by the felled 
trees thrown across the river — if possible of in- 
creased difficulty, owing to their greater size and 
the narrow breadth of the stream ; but although 
delayed, we were not to be beaten. We ascer- 
tained that the pirates had retreated to a Dyak 
village, situated on the summit of a hill, some 
twenty-five miles higher up the Undop, five or six 
miles only of which we had succeeded in ascend- 
ing, as a most dreary and rainy night closed in, 
during which we were joined by Mr. D'Aeth and 
his division from the Lupar river. 

The following morning, the 13th of August, 
at daybreak, we again commenced our toilsome 
work. With the gig and the lighter boats we 
succeeded better; and I should have despaired 
of the heavier boats ever getting up, had they 
not been assisted by an opportune and sudden 
rise of the tide, to the extent of twelve or four- 
teen feet, though with this we had to contend 
against a considerably increased strength of cur- 
rent. It was on this day that my ever-active and 
zealous first lieutenant, Charles Wade, jealous of 
the advanced position of our light boats, obtained 
a place in my gig. That evening the Phlegethon's 



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SKIRMISHING. 101 

first and second cutters, the Dido's - two cutters, 
and their gigs, were fortunate enough to pass a 
barrier composed of trees (evidently but recently 
felled ; from which we concluded ourselves to be 
so near the enemy that, by pushing forward as 
long as we could possibly see, we might prevent 
further impediments from being thrown in our 
way. This we did; but at 9 p*m. arriving at a 
broad expanse of the river, and being utterly un- 
able to trace our course, we anchored our ad- 
vanced force for the night. 

On Wednesday, 14th, we again pushed on at 
daylight. We had gained information of two land- 
ing-places leading to the Dyak village on the hill, 
round three-fourths of the foot of which the Undop 
flowed. The first landing-place we had no trouble 
in discovering, from the number of deserted boats 
collected near it. Leaving these to be looted by 
our followers, we proceeded in search of the second, 
which we understood was situated more imme- 
diately under the village, and which, having ad- 
vanced without our guides, we had much difficulty 
in finding. The circuit of the base of the hill was 
above five miles. In traversing this distance, we 
had repeated skirmishing with straggling boats of 
the enemy, upon whom we came unexpectedly. 
During this warfare, Patingi Ali, who, with his- 
usual zeal, had here come up, bringing a consider- 
able native force of both Malays and Dyaks, was 
particularly on the alert ; and while we in the gig 



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102 PIRATES SURPRISED 

attacked the large war-prahu of Seriff Muller him- 
self — the resistance of whose followers was only the 
discharge of their muskets, after which they threw 
themselves into the river, part only effecting their 
escape— the Patingi nearly succeeded in capturing 
that chief in person* He had escaped from his 
prahu into a remarkably beautiful and fast-pulling 
sampan, in which he was chased by old Ali, and 
afterwards only saved his life by throwing himself 
into the water, and swimming to the jungle ; and 
it was with no small pride that the gallant old 
chief appropriated the boat to his own use. In 
the prahu were captured two large brass guns, two 
smaller ones, a variety of small arms, ammunition, 
provisions, colours, and personal property, amongst 
which were also two pair of handsome jars of 
English manufacture. After this, having pro- 
ceeded some considerable distance without finding 
the second landing-place, we put in close to a clear 
green spot, with the intention of getting our break- 
fasts, and of waiting the arrival of the other boat 
with the guides. 

While our crew were busily employed cooking, 
Lieutenant Wade and myself fancied we heard the 
suppressed voices of many people not far distant, 
and taking up our guns we crept into the jungle. 
*We had not penetrated many yards before I came 
in sight of a mass of boats concealed in a snug 
little inlet, the entrance to which had escaped 
our notice. These were filled with the piratical 



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AND ROUTED, 103 

Dyaks and Malays, and on shore at various points 
were placed armed sentinels. My first impulse 
was to conceal ourselves until the arrival of our 
force ; but my rash, though gallant friend deemed 
otherwise ; and without noticing the caution of 
my upheld hand, dashed in advance, discharging 
his gun, and calling upon our men to follow. It 
is impossible to conceive the consternation and 
confusion this our sudden sally occasioned among 
the pirates. The confused noise and scrambling 
from their boats I can only liken to that of a 
suddenly-roused flock of wild ducks. Our attack 
from the point whence it came was evidently un- 
expected; and it is my opinion that they calcu- 
lated on our attacking the hill, if we did so at 
all, from the nearest landing-place, without pull- 
ing round the other five miles, as the whole atten- 
tion of their scouts appeared to be directed towards 
that quarter. A short distance above them was 
a small encampment, probably erected for the con- 
venience of their chiefs, as in it we found writing 
materials, two or three desks of English manufac- 
ture, on the brass plate of one of which, I after- 
wards noticed, was engraved the name of "Mr. 
Wilson." To return to the pirates : with our force, 
such as it was — nine in number — and headed by 
Lieutenant Wade, we pursued our terrified enemy, 
who had not the sense or courage to rally in their 
judiciously selected and naturally protected encamp- 
ment, but continued their retreat (firing on us from 



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104 DEATH OF LIEUT. WADE. 

the jtingle) towards the Dyak village on the sum- 
mit of the hill. 

We here collected our force, reloaded our fire- 
arms ; and Lieutenant Wade, seeing from this spot 
the arrival at the landing-place of the other boats, 
again rushed on in pursuit. Before arriving at the 
foot of the steep ascent on the summit of which 
the before-mentioned Dyak village stood, we had 
to cross a small open space of about sixty yards, 
exposed to the fire from the village as well as the 
surrounding jungle. It was before crossing this 
plain that I again cautioned my gallant friend to 
await the arrival of his men, of whom he was far 
in advance ; and almost immediately afterwards he 
fell mortally wounded at my feet, having been 
struck by two rifle-shots, and died instantaneously. 
I remained with the body until our men came up, 
and giving it in charge, we carried the place on 
the height without a check or further accident. 
The Dyak village we now occupied I would have 
spared, as on no occasion had we noticed any of 
the tribe fighting against us ; but it was by shot 
fired from it that poor Wade was killed, and the 
work of destruction commenced simultaneously with 
the arrival of our men. It was most gratifying 
to me throughout the expedition to observe the 
friendly rivalry and emulation between the crews 
of the Phlegethon and the Dido's boats. On this 
occasion the former had the glory of first gaining 
the height ; and one of the officers of the former, 



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HIS FUNERAL. 105 

Mr. Simpson, wounded, with a pistol-shot, a man 
armed with a rifle, supposed to have been the per- 
son who had slain our first-lieutenant* 

I may here narrate a circumstance, from which 
one may judge of the natural kind-heartedness 
of my lamented friend. During the heat of the 
pursuit, although too anxious to advance to await 
the arrival of his men, he nevertheless found time 
to conceal in a place of security a poor terrified 
Malay girl whom he overtook, and who, by an 
imploring look, touched his heart. The village 
and the piratical boats destroyed, and the excite* 
ment over, we had time to reflect on the loss we 
had sustained of one so generally beloved as the 
leader of the expedition had been among us all. 1 
Having laid the body in a canoe, with the Bri- 
tish union-jack for a pall, we commenced our de- 
scent of the river with very different spirits from 
those with which we had ascended only a few 
hours before. In the evening, with our whole 
force assembled, we performed the last sad cere- 
mony of committing the body to the deep, with all 
the honours that time and circumstance would 
allow. I read that beautiful, impressive service 
from a Prayer-book, the only one, by the by, in 
the expedition, which he himself had brought, as 
he said, "in case of accident." 

Before we again got under weigh, several 
Malay families, no longer in dread of their pira- 
1 See Appendix. 



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106 EXPEDITION PLANNED AGAINST 

tical chief, Seriff Muller, who had fled nobody 
knew whither, gave themselves up to us as prison- 
ers, trusting to the mercy of a white man; the 
first instance of any of them having done so. We 
heard, also, that Macota had retreated with the 
Seriff; and on examination we found the papers 
captured in the encampment belonged to them, 
exposing several deep intrigues and false state- 
ments addressed to the Sultan, the purport of 
which was to impress his mind with the belief of 
a hostile intention on the part of the British 
government towards his country. We brought-up 
for the night off the still-burning ruins of Seriff 
Mullens town. 

On Thursday the 15th we again reached the 
steamer. We found her prepared for action, 
having been much annoyed during the night by 
the continued Dyak war-yells — sounds, to unini- 
tiated ears, as unpleasant as those of musketry. 
Having driven away the two principal instigators 
and abettors of all the piracies committed along 
the coast of Borneo and elsewhere, and destroyed 
their strongholds, it now remained for us to punish 
the pirates themselves as far as lay in our power. 
The Sakarran Dyaks being the only ones now 
remaining who had not received convincing proofs 
that their brutal and inhuman trade would be no 
longer allowed, the 15th and 16th were passed 
on board the steamer, to rest the men after the 
severe fatigue encountered up the Undop, and in 



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THE SAKABRAN PIRATES. 107 

making preparations for an advance up the Sak- 
arran* During the night of the 16th several of 
our native followers were wounded. Their boats 
not being furnished with anchors, and the river 
being deep, they were obliged to make fast to 
the bank, which in the dark afforded great faci- 
lity for the enemy to creep down through the 
jungle unperceived, so close as to fire a shot and 
even thrust their spears through the thin mat- 
covering of the boats. One poor fellow received , 
a shot in his lungs, from which # he died the fol- 
lowing day; a Dyak likewise died from a spear- 
wound; and in the morning we witnessed the 
pile forming for burning the Dyak, and the coffin 
making for conveying the body of the Malay to 
Sarawak, his native place ; both parties having an 
equal horror of their dead falling into the hands 
of the enemy, although differing in their mode of 
disposing of them. 

On Saturday, the 17th, the expedition, con- 
sisting of the Dido's pinnace, her two cutters and 
gig, the Jolly Bachelor, and the Phlegethon's first 
and second cutters and gig, started up the Sakar- 
ran. A small division of light native boats, under 
the command of the brave old Patingi Ali, were 
selected to keep as a reconnoitring party with our 
leading boats, while the remaining native force, of 
above thirty boats, followed as a reserve. We ad- 
vanced the first day some twenty miles without so 
much as seeing a native, although our progress 



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108 ADVANCE UP THE SAKARRAN. 

was considerably delayed by stopping to burn farm- 
houses, and a number of war-prahus found con- 
cealed in the jungle or long grass on either side 
of the river. We brought up early in the after- 
noon, for the purpose of strongly fortifying our- 
selves, both ashore and afloat, against surprise 
before the night set in, by which time it would 
have taken a well-disciplined and powerful force 
to have dislodged us. 

This evening we had unusually fine weather ; 
and we squatted down to our meal of curry and 
rice with better appetites and higher spirits than 
we had done for some days. We advanced the 
following day: and although we reached several 
villages, the grain had been removed from them 
all ; which, in all probability, was done imme- 
diately upon their hearing of the fall of their 
supposed impregnable Patusen. In the evening 
we took the same precautions as on the preceding 
night, considering that our enemies were not to 
be despised. Owing to heavy rains which fell 
during the night, and caused a strong current, 
our progress was considerably retarded. The 
scenery was beautiful — more so than in any of 
the rivers we had yet visited. We likewise now 
repeatedly fell in with small detachments of the 
enemy, and spears were thrown from the banks, 
which added considerably to our excitement and 
amusement. On every point we found the re- 
mains of the preceding night's watch-fires, so that 



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TRACES OF THE ENEMY. 109 

news of our approach would have been conveyed 
rapidly along. While leading in the gig with a 
select few of our followers, we came suddenly on 
a boat full of warriors, all gorgeously dressed, and 
apparently perfectly unconscious of our approach. 
The discharge of our muskets and the capsizing 
of their war-boat was the work of an instant ; but 
most of their crew saved their lives by escaping 
into the jungle. 

This evening, Sunday, the 18th, we experi- 
enced some difficulty in finding a suitable place for 
our bivouac. While examining the most eligible- 
looking spot on the bank of the river, the crew 
of one of the Phlegethon's boats, having crept up 
the opposite bank, came suddenly on a party of 
Dyaks, who saluted them with a war-yell and a 
shower of spears ; and it was absurd to see the 
way in which they precipitated themselves into 
the water again to escape from this unexpected 
danger. The Dyaks, too, appear to have been 
equally surprised. The place we selected for the 
night was a large house about forty yards from 
the edge of the river; and for a musket-range 
around which we had not much difficulty in clear- 
ing the ground. Here we all united our different 
messes, and passed a jovial evening. The night, 
however, set in with a most fearful thunder-storm, 
accompanied by the most vivid flashes of lightning 
I ever witnessed. The rain continued to fall in 
torrents : it cleared up at daylight, when we pro T 



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110 BOATS HEMMED IN. 

ceeded. As yet the banks of the river had been a 
continued garden, with sugar-cane plantations and 
banana-trees in abundance. As we advanced, the 
scenery assumed a wilder and still more beautiful 
appearance, presenting high steep points, with large 
overhanging trees, and occasionally forming into 
pretty picturesque bays, with sloping banks. At 
other times we approached narrow gorges, look- 
ing so dark that, until past, you almost doubted 
there being a passage through. We were in 
hopes that this morning we should have reached 
their capital, a place called Karangan, supposed 
to be about ten miles further on. At 9 o'clock 
Mr. Brooke, who was with me in the gig, stopped 
to breakfast with young Jenkins in the second 
cutter. Not expecting to meet with any oppo- 
sition for some miles, I gave permission to Pa- 
tingi Ali to advance cautiously with his light di- 
vision, and with positive instructions to fall back 
upon the first appearance of any natives. As the 
stream was running down very strong, we held on 
to the bank, waiting for the arrival of the second 
cutter. Our pinnace and second gig having both 
passed up, we had remained about a quarter of 
an hour, when the report of a few musket-shots 
told us that the pirates had been fallen in with. 
We immediately pushed on ; and as we advanced, 
the increased firing from our boats, and the war- 
yells of some thousand Dyaks, let us know that 
an engagement had really commenced. It would 



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BY THE PIRATES. Ill 

be difficult to describe the scene as I found it. 
About twenty boats were jammed together, form- 
ing one confused mass ; some bottom up ; the bows 
or sterns of others only visible ; mixed up, pell- 
mell, with huge rafts; and amongst which were 
nearly all our advanced little division. Headless 
trunks, as well as heads without bodies, were ly- 
ing about in all directions ; parties were engaged 
hand to hand, spearing and krissing each other ; 
others were striving to swim for their lives ; en- 
tangled in the common melee were our advanced 
boats ; while on both banks thousands of Dyaks 
were rushing down to join in the slaughter, hurl- 
ing their spears and stones on the boats below. 
For a moment I was at a loss what steps to take 
for rescuing our people from the embarrassed po- 
sition in which they were, as the whole mass 
(through which there was no passage) were float- 
ing down the stream, and the addition of fresh 
boats arriving only increased the confusion. For- 
tunately, at this critical moment one of the rafts, 
catching the stump of a tree, broke this floating 
bridge, making a passage, through which (my gig 
being propelled by paddles instead of oars) I was 
enabled to pass. 

It occurred to Mr. Brooke and myself simul- 
taneously, that, by advancing in the gig, we should 
draw the attention of the pirates towards us, so 
as to give time for the other boats to clear them- 
selves. This had the desired effect. The whole 



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112 THE FIGHT, 

force on shore turned, as if to secure what they 
rashly conceived to he their prize. 

We now advanced mid-channel: spears and 
stones assailed us from both banks. My friend 
Brooke's gun would not go off j so giving him the 
yoke-lines, he steered the boat, while I kept up a 
rapid fire, Mr. Allen, in the second gig, quickly 
coming up, opened upon them, from a congreve- 
rocket tube, such a destructive fire as caused 
them to retire panic-struck behind the temporary 
barriers where they had concealed themselves pre- 
vious to the attack upon Patingi Ali, and from 
whence they continued, for some twenty minutes, 
to hurl their spears and other missiles. Among 
the latter may be mentioned short lengths of bam- 
boo, one end heavily loaded with stone, and thrown 
with great force and precision j the few fire-arms 
of which they were possessed were of but little 
use to them after the first discharge, the opera- 
tion of reloading, in their inexperienced hands, 
requiring a longer time than the hurling of some 
twenty spears. The sumpitan was likewise freely 
employed by these pirates ; but although several 
of our men belonging to the pinnace were struck, 
no fatal results ensued, from the dexterous and 
expeditious manner in which the wounded parts 
were excised by Mr. Beith, the assistant-surgeon; 
any poison that might remain being afterwards 
sucked out by one of the comrades of the wounded 
men. 



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boat's crew slaughtered. 113 

As our force increased, the pirates retreated 
from their position, and could not again muster 
courage to rally. Their loss must have been con T 
siderable ; ours might have been light, had poor 
old Patingi Ali attended to orders. 

It appears that the Patingi (over-confident, 
and probably urged on by Mr. Steward, who, un- 
known to me, was concealed in Ali's boat when 
application was made by that chief for permission 
to proceed in advance for the purpose of recon- 
noitring), instead of falling back, as particularly 
directed, on the first appearance of any of the 
enemy, made a dash, followed by his little division 
of boats, through the narrow pass above described. 
As soon as he had done so, huge rafts of bamboo 
were launched across the river, so as to cut off his 
retreat. Six large war-prahus, probably carrying 
100 men each, then bore down — three on either 
side — on his devoted followers ; and one only of a 
crew of seventeen that manned his boat escaped to 
tell the tale. When last seen by our advanced 
boats, 1 Mr. Steward and Patingi Ali were in the 
act (their own boats sinking) of boarding the ene- 
my. They were doubtless overpowered and killed, 
with twenty-nine others, who lost their lives on this 
occasion. Our wounded in all amounted to fifty- 
six. 

A few miles higher up was the town and capi- 
tal of Karangan, which place it was their business 
1 See Appendix. 

VOL. II. I 



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1 14 FARTHER PROCEEDINGS. 

to defend, and ours to destroy, and this we suc- 
ceeded in effecting without further opposition. We 
ascended a short distance ahove this, hut found the 
river impracticable for the further progress of the 
boats ; but our object having been achieved, the 
expedition may be said to have closed, as no more 
resistance was offered ; so we dropped leisurely 
down the river, and that evening reached our rest- 
ing-place of the previous night : but having burnt 
the house in the morning, we were obliged to sleep 
in our boats, with a strong guard on shore. 

Attempts were made to molest the native boats 
by hurling spears into them from the jungle under 
cover of the night j but after a few discharges of 
musketry the enemy retired, leaving us to enjoy 
another stormy and rainy night as we best could. 

On the 20th we reached the steamer, where we 
remained quiet all the next day, attending to the 
wounded, and ascertaining the exact extent of our 
loss. On the 22d we again reached Patusen. We 
found every thing in the same wretched state as 
when we left ; and a pile of firewood, previously 
cut for the use of the steamer, had not been re- 
moved. After dark a storm of thunder, lightning, 
and heavy rain, came on as usual, and with it a 
few mishaps. A boat belonging to the old Tu- 
mangong was capsized by the bore, by which his 
plunder, including a large brass gun, was lost, 
and the crew with difficulty saved their lives. At 
eight we heard the report of a gun, which was 



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ARRIVAL OF SIR E. BELCHER. 115 

again repeated much nearer at nine ; and before a 
signal-rocket could be fired, or a light shewn, we 
were astonished by being hailed by the boats of a 
British man-of-war ; and the next moment Captain 
Sir E. Belcher, having been assisted by a rapid 
tide, came alongside the steamer with the welcome 
news of having brought our May letters from Eng- 
land. On the arrival of the Samarang off the Mo- 
rotaba, Sir Edward heard of the loss we had sus- 
tained ; and, with his usual zeal and activity, came 
at once to our assistance, having brought his boats 
no less than 120 miles in about thirty hours. At 
the moment of his joining us, our second mishap 
occurred. The night, a$ previously mentioned, was 
pitch dark, and a rapid current running, when the 
cry of " a man overboard" caused a sensation diffi- 
cult to describe. All available boats were imme- 
diately despatched in search ; and soon afterwards 
we were cheered by the sound of " all right." It 
appears that the news of the arrival of the mail 
was not long in spreading throughout our little 
fleet, when Mr. D'Aeth, leaving the first cutter in 
a small sampan, capsized in coming alongside the 
steamer ; the man in the bow (who composed the 
crew) saved himself by catching hold of the nearest 
boat ; Mr. D'Aeth would have been drowned had. 
he not been an excellent swimmer. This was not 
the last of our mishaps ; for we had no sooner ar- 
ranged ourselves and newly-arrived visitors from 
the Samarang. comfortably on board the steamer 



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116 RETURN, AND NEW EXPEDITION 

from the pelting rain, than the accustomed and 
quick ear of Mr. Brooke heard the cry of natives 
in distress. Jumping into his Singapore sampan, 
he pushed off to their assistance, and returned 
shortly afterwards, having picked up three, half- 
drowned, of our Dyak followers, whom he had 
found clinging to the floating trunk of a tree. 
They too had heen capsized by the bore; when, 
out of eleven composing the crew, only these three 
were saved — although the Dyaks are invariably 
expert swimmers. 

On the 23d, after waiting to obtain meridian 
observations, we moved down as far as the mouth 
of the river Linga, and then despatched one of 
our Malay chiefs to the town of Bunting, to sum- 
mon Seriff Jaffer to a conference. This, however, 
he declined on a plea of ill health, sending as- 
surance, at the same time, of his good-will, and 
inclination to assist us in our endeavours to sup- 
press piracy. 

On the night of the 24th, we once again 
reached Sarawak, where the rejoicings of the pre- 
vious year, when we returned from a successful 
expedition, were repeated. On the third evening 
after our return, we were just settling down to en- 
£>y a little rest, having got our .sick and wounded 
into comfortable quarters, and were beginning 
heartily to indulge in the comforts of a bed after 
our fatigue and harassing duties in open boats 
during the previous three weeks, when information 



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AGAINST SERIFF SAHIB. 117 

arrived that Seriff Sahib had taken refuge in the 
Linga river, where, assisted by Seriff Jaffer, he 
was again collecting his followers. No time was 
to be lost ; and on the 28th, with the addition 
of the Samarang's boats, we once more started, to 
crush, if possible, this persevering and desperate 
pirate ; and, in the middle of the night, came to 
an anchor inside the Linga river. 

When our expedition had been watched safely 
outside the Batang Lupar, on its return to Sa- 
rawak, all those unfortunate families that had 
concealed themselves in the jungle, after the de- 
struction of the different towns of Patusen and 
Undop, had emerged from their hiding-places, 
and, embarking on rafts, half-ruined boats, or, 
in short, any things that would float, were in the 
act of tiding and working their passage towards 
the extensive and flourishing town of Bunting. 
Their dismay can well be imagined, when, at day- 
light on the morning of the 29th, they found them- 
selves carried by the tide close alongside the long 
black terror-spreading steamer, and in the midst 
of our augmented fleet. Escape to them was next 
to hopeless j nor did the softer sex seem much to 
mind the change — probably thinking that to be 
swallowed up by the white man was not much 
worse than dying in the jungle of starvation. I 
need not say that, instead of being molested, they 
were supplied with such provisions and assistance 
as our means would permit us to afford, and then 



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118 MACOTA CAPTURED. 

allowed to pass quietly on ; in addition to which 
we despatched several of our native followers into 
the Batang Lupar, to inform the poor fugitives 
that our business was with the chiefs and insti- 
gators of piracy, and not to molest the misguided 
natives. 

With the ebb-tide a large number of boats 
came down from the town — the news of our arri- 
val having reached them during the night — con- 
taining the principal chiefs, with assurances of 
their pacific intentions, and welcoming us with 
presents of poultry, goats, fruit, &c, which we re- 
ceived, paying the fair market-price for them, either 
by way of barter or in hard dollars. They assured 
us that Seriff Sahib should not be received among 
them j but that they had heard of his having ar- 
rived at Pontranini, on a small tributary stream 
some fifty miles above their town. We immediately 
decided on proceeding in pursuit before he could 
have time to establish himself in any force. It was 
also evident that the Balow Dyaks, who inhabit 
this part of the country, were decidedly in favour 
of our operations against Seriff Sahib, although 
afraid — on account of Seriff Jaffer and his Malays 
— to express their opinions openly. We also as- 
certained that Macota, with a remnant of his fol- 
lowers, was hourly expected in the mouth of the 
river, from the jungle, into which he had been 
driven during the fight on the Undop heights. 
Knowing that it would fare badly with this trea- 



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CONFERENCE WITH SERIFF JAFFER. 119 

cherous and cunning, although now harmless chief, 
should he fall into the hands of any of our native 
followers, I despatched two boats to look out for 
and bring him to us alive. This they succeeded 
in doing, securing him in a deep muddy jungle, 
into which he had thrown himself upon per- 
ceiving the approach of our men. Leaving him 
a prisoner on board the Phlegethon, we, with the 
flood-tide, pushed forward in pursuit of Seriff 
Sahib. 

For two days we persevered in dragging our 
boats, for the distance of twenty miles, up a small 
jungly creek, which, to all appearance, was impas- 
sable for any thing but canoes. But it had the 
desired effect, proving to the natives what deter- 
mination could achieve in accomplishing our object, 
even beyond the hopes of our sanguine Balow Dyak 
guides. The consequence was, that Seriff Sahib 
made a final and precipitate retreat, across the 
mountains, in the direction of the Fontiana river. 
So close were we on his rear — harassed as he was 
by the Balow Dyaks, who had refused him common 
means of subsistence — that he threw away his 
sword, and left behind him a child whom he had 
hitherto' carried in the jungle j and this once- 
dreaded chief was now driven, single and unat- 
tended, out of the reach of doing any further 
mischief. 

The boats returned, and took up a formidable 
position off the town of Bunting, where we sum- 



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120 mr. Brooke's speech. 

moned Seriff Jaffer to a conference. To this he 
was obliged to attend, as the natives had learnt 
that we were not to he trifled with, and would have 
forced him on board rather than have permitted 
their village to be destroyed. With Pangeran 
Budrudeen, acting as the representative of the 
Sultan, Seriff Jaffer was obliged to resign all pre- 
tensions to the government of the province over 
which he had hitherto held sway, since it was con- 
sidered, from his being a Malay and from his re- 
lationship to Seriff Sahib, that he was an unsafe 
person to be entrusted with so important a post. 

A second conference on shore took plaxse, at 
which the chiefs of all the surrounding country 
attended, when the above sentence was confirmed. 
On this occasion I had the satisfaction of wit- 
nessing what must have been — from the effect I 
observed it to have produced on the hearers — a 
fine piece of oratory, delivered by Mr. Brooke in 
the native tongue, with a degree of fluency I had 
never witnessed before, even in a Malay. The pur- 
port of it, as I understood, was, to point out em- 
phatically the horrors of piracy on the one hand, 
which it was the determination of the British 
government to suppress, and on the other hand, 
the blessings arising from peace and trade, which 
it was equally our wish to cultivate; and it con- 
cluded by fully explaining, that the measures lately 
adopted by us against piracy were for the protec- 
tion of all the peaceful communities along the 



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VISIT THE LUNDU DYAKS. 121 

coast. So great was the attention bestowed dur- 
ing the delivery of this speech that the dropping 
of a pin might have been heard. 

From these people many assurances were re- 
ceived of their anxiety and willingness to co-operate 
with us in our laudable undertaking ; and one and 
all were alike urgent that the government of their 
river should be transferred to the English, 

On the 4th September, the force again reached 
Sarawak ; and thus terminated a most successful 
expedition against the worst pirates on the coast of 
Borneo. 

We found the Samarang off the Morotaba en- 
trance, when' Mr. Brooke and myself became the 
guests of Sir Edward Belcher for several days, 
during which time we made excursions to all the 
small islands in that neighbourhood, discovered 
large quantities of excellent oysters, and had some 
very good hog-shooting. Afterwards, accompanied 
by the boats of the Samarang, we paid a visit 
to the Lundu Dyaks, which gave them great de- 
light. They entertained us at a large feast, when 
the whole of the late expedition was fought over 
again, and a war-dance with the newly-acquired 
heads of the Sakarran pirates was performed for 
our edification. Later in the evening, two of the 
elder chiefs got up, and, walking up and down the 
long gallery, commenced a dialogue, for the infor- 
mation, as they said, of the women, children, and 
poorer people who were obliged to remain at 



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122 CURIOUS CEREMONY, 

home. It consisted in putting such questions to 
one another as should elicit all the particulars of 
the late expedition, such as, what had become of 
different celebrated Sakarran chiefs ? (whom they 
named) how had they been destroyed? how did 
they die? by whom had they been slain? &c. 
All these inquiries received the most satisfactory 
replies, in which the heroic conduct of themselves 
and the white men were largely dwelt upon. 
While this was performing, the two old warriors, 
with the heads of their enemies suspended from 
their shoulders like a soldier's cartouch - box, 
stumped up and down, striking the floor with 
their clubs, and getting very excited. How long 
it lasted none of our party could tell, as one and 
all dropped off to sleep during the recital. Mr. 
Brooke has given so good a description of these 
kind and simple people that I need not here fur- 
ther notice them. 

Shortly after our return to the Samarang, 
she, getting short of provisions, sailed for Singa- 
pore, and Mr. Brooke and myself went up to Sa- 
rawak, where the Dido was still lying. Great 
rejoicings and firing of cannon, as on a former 
occasion, announced our return ; and after paying 
our respects to the Rajah, we visited the Tuman- 
gong and Patingis. 

A curious ceremony is generally performed on 
the return of the chiefs from a fortunate war 
expedition, which is not only done by way of a 



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CURIOUS CEREMONY. 123 

welcome back/ but is supposed to ensure equal 
success on the next excursion. This ceremony was 
better performed at the old Tumangong's than at 
the other houses. After entering the principal 
room, we seated ourselves in a semicircle on the 
mat floor, when the old chiefs three wives ad- 
vanced to welcome us with their female rela- 
tives, all richly and prettily dressed in sarongs 
suspended from the waist, and silken scarfs worn 
gracefully over one shoulder, just hiding or ex- 
posing as much of their well-shaped persons as 
they thought most becoming. Each of these ladies 
in succession taking a handful of yellow rice, 
threw it over us, repeating some mystical words, 
and dilating on our heroic deeds, and then they 
sprinkled our heads with gold-dust. This is 
generally done by grating a lump of gold against 
a dried piece of shark's skin. Two of these ladies 
bore the pretty names of Inda and Amina. Inda 
was young, pretty, and graceful; and although 
she had borne her husband no children, she was 
supposed to have much greater influence over him 
than the other two. Report said that she had a 
temper, and that the Tumangong was much afraid 
of her ; but this may have been only Sarawak 
scandal. She brought her portion of gold-dust 
already grated, and wrapped up in a piece of paper, 
from which she took a pinch; and in reaching 
to sprinkle some over my head, she, by accident, 
put the prettiest little foot on to my hand, which, 



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124 THE DIDO RETURNS TO ENGLAND. 

as she wore neither shoes nor stockings, she did 
not hurt sufficiently to cause me to withdraw it. 
After this ceremony we (the warriors) feasted and 
smoked together, attended on by the ladies. 

Another conference with Muda Hassim took 
place; and I subsequently quitted Sarawak for 
Singapore, intending to re-provision the Dido at 
that port, and then return to Sarawak, in order to 
convey the Rajah and his suite to Borneo Proper. 
At Singapore, however, I found orders for Eng- 
land, and sailed accordingly; but the service al- 
luded to was readily performed by Sir Edward 
Belcher, in H. M. S. Samarang, accompanied by 
the H. C/s steamer Phlegethon. 

On my return to England I had the gratifica- 
tion to learn that Mr. Brooke had been appointed 
agent for the British government in Borneo ; and 
that Captain Bethune, R.N., C.B., had been de- 
spatched on special service to that island : events 
I cannot but consider of great importance to the 
best interests of humanity, and to the extension of 
British commerce throughout the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. 



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CHAPTEE VI. 

Later portion of Mr. Brooke's Journal. Departure of Captain 
Keppel, and arrival of Sir £. Belcher. Mr. Brooke proceeds 
with Muda Hassim, in the Samarang, to Borneo. Labuan 
examined. Returns to Sarawak. Visit of Lingire, a Sarebus 
chief. The Dyaks of Tumma and Bandar Cassim. Meets 
an assembly of Malays and Dyaks. Arrival of Lingi, as a 
deputation from the Sakarran chiefs! The Malay character. 
Excursion up the country. Miserable effects of excess in 
opium-smoking. Picturesque situation of the Sow village of 
Ra-at. Nawang. Feast at Ra-at. Returns home. Confer- 
ences with Dyak chiefs. 

The return to England of Captain Bethune, 
C.B., bringing with him a further portion of Mr. 
Brooke's Journal to my charge, enables me to 
afford my readers some interesting details relative 
to the important events that have occurred in Bor- 
neo subsequent to my departure from Sarawak. 

"January, 1845. — The departure of the Dido 
left me sad and lonely, for Captain Keppel had 
been really my companion and friend ; and he so 
thoroughly entered into my views for the suppres- 
sion of piracy, and made them his own, that I may 
not expect any successor to act with the same 



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126 THE BADJOWS AND BALAGNINI. 

vigour and the same decision. Gallant Didos ! 
I would ask no further aid or protection than I 
received from you. Sir Edward Belcher, with the 
Phlegethon in company, arrived not long after 
the Dido's departure, and conveyed the Rajah 
Muda Hassim and his train to Borneo Proper. 
H.M.S. Samarang and Phlegethon visited and ex- 
amined Labuan, and proceeded thence to Ambun. 
Ambun is a miserable village ; and it at once gave 
the lie to the report of a European female being 
there in captivity, for no poor Qrang Kaya could 
retain such a prize. The inhabitants of Ambun 
are Badjows; and the country people or Dyaks of 
the interior are called Dusuns, or villagers. I saw 
many of them, and they appeared a gentle mild 
race, and far less warlike by account than our 
Dyaks. They are not tattooed, and the sumpitan 
is unknown amongst them. Leaving Ambun, which 
is situated in a pretty bay, we proceeded to 
Tampasuk, a considerable town, inhabited by II- 
lanuns and Badjows. This is a piratical town ; 
and I was informed by an Arab in captivity there, 
that scarcely a week passes without strife and con- 
tention amongst themselves. There likewise I re- 
ceived information respecting the Balagnini, the 
great pirates of these seas. They are represented 
as inhabiting numerous small islands in the vicinity 
of Sooloo : their origin is Badjow. I apprehend 
there would be little difficulty in breaking their 
power, and curing their propensity to piracy. 



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THE TUMMA DYAKS. 127 

" This cruise being over, I established myself 
quietly at Sarawak. The country is peaceable ; 
trade flourishes; the Dyaks are content; the 
Malays greatly increased in number — in short, all 
goes well. I received a visit from Lingire, a Dyak 
chief of Sarebus. At first he was shy and some- 
what suspicious ; but a little attention soon put 
him at his ease. He is an intelligent man; and 
I hail with pleasure his advent to Sarawak, as the 
dawn of a friendship with the two pirate tribes. 
It is not alone for the benefit of these tribes that 
I desire to cultivate their friendship, but for the 
greater object of penetrating the interior through 
their means. There are no Malays there to im- 
pede our progress by their lies and their intrigues ; 
and, God willing, these rivers shall be the great 
arteries by which civilisation shall be circulated 
to the heart of Borneo. 

" \4th. — The Dyaks of Tumma, a runaway 
tribe from Sadong, came down last night, as Ban- 
dar Cassim of Sadong wishes still to extract pro- 
perty from them. Bandar Cassim I believe to be 
a weak man, swayed by stronger-headed and worse 
rascals ; but, now that Seriff Sahib and Muda 
Hassim are no longer in the country, he retains 
no excuse for oppressing the poor Dyaks. Si 
Nankan and Tumma have already flown, and most 
of the other tribes are ready to follow their ex- 
ample, and take refuge in Sarawak. I have fully 
explained to the Bandar that he will lose all his 



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128 ASSEMBLY OF NATIVES. 

Dyaks if he continues his system of oppression, and 
more especially if he continues to resort to that 
most hateful system of seizing the women and 
children. 

" I had a large assembly of natives, Malay and 
Dyaks, and held forth many good maxims to them. 
At present, in Sarawak, we have Balows and 
Sarehus, mortal enemies; Lenaar, our extreme 
tribe, and our new Sadong tribe of Tumma. Lately 
we had Kantoss, from near Sarambowi in the in- 
terior of Pontiana ; Undops, from that river ; and 
Badjows, from near Lantang — tribes which had 
never thought of Sarawak before, and perhaps 
never heard the name. Oh, for power to pursue 
the course pointed out ! 

" \6fh. — The Julia arrived, much to my relief; 
and Mr. Low, a botanist and naturalist, arrived in 
her. He will be a great acquisition to our society, 
if devoted to these pursuits. The same day that 
the Julia entered, the Ariel left the river. I 
dismissed the Tumma Dyaks; re- warned Bandar 
Cassim of the consequences of his oppression ; and 
had a parting interview with Lingire. I had an- 
other long talk with Lingire, and did him honour 
by presenting him with a spear and flag, for I 
believe he is true, and will be useful ; and this 
Orang Kaya Pa-muncha, the most powerful of these 
Dyaks, must be mine. Lingire described to me a 
great fight he once had with the Kayans, on which 
occasion he got ninety-one heads, and forced a 



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VISIT OF LINGI. 129 

large body of them to retire with inferior numbers* 
I asked him whether the Kayans used the sumpi- 
tan ? he answered, c Yes.' c Did many of your men 
die from the wounds ?' * No ; we can cure them/ 
This is one more proof in favour of Mr. Crawfurd's 
opinion that this poison is not sufficiently virulent 
to destroy life when the arrow is (as it mostly is) 
plucked instantly from the wound. 

" 26th. — Lingi, a Sakarran chief, arrived, de- 
puted (as he asserted, and I believe truly) by the 
other chiefs of Sakarran to assure me of their 
submission and desire for peace. He likewise 
stated, that false rumours spread by the Malays 
agitated the Dyaks ; and the principal rumour 
was, that they would be shortly attacked again by 
the white men. These rumours are spread by the 
Sariki people, to induce the Sakarrans to quit 
their river and take refuge in the interior of the 
Kejong ; and once there, the Sakarrans would be 
in a very great measure at the mercy of the Sa- 
riki people. This is a perfect instance of Malay 
dealing with the Dyaks; but in this case it has 
failed, as the Sakarrans are too much attached to 
their country to quit it. I am inclined to believe 
their professions ; and at any rate it is convenient 
to do so and to give them a fair trial. 

"28/A. — How is it to be accounted for, that 
the Malays have so bad a character with the 
public, and yet that the few who have had op- 
portunities of knowing them well speak of them 

VOL. II. K 



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130 THE MALAY CHARACTER. 

as a simple and not unamiable people ? With the 
vulgar, the idea of a Malay — and by the Malay 
they mean the entire Polynesian race, with the 
exception of the Javanese — is that of a treache- 
rous bloodthirsty villain; and I believe the rea- 
son to be, that from our first intercourse to the 
present time, it is the Fangerans or Eajahs of the 
country, with their followers, who are made the 
standard of Malay character. These Rajahs, born 
in the purple, bred amid slaves and fighting-cocks, 
inheriting an undisputed power over their subjects, 
and under all circumstances, whether of riches or 
poverty, receiving the abject submission of those 
around their persons, are naturally the slaves of 
their passions — haughty, rapacious, vindictive, 
weak, and tenacious unto death of the paltry punc- 
tilio of their court. The followers of such Eajahs 
it is needless to describe; — they are the tools of 
the Rajah's will, and more readily disposed for evil 
than for good ; unscrupulous, cunning, intriguing, 
they are prepared for any act of violence. We 
must next contrast these with a burly independent 
trader, eager after gain, probably not over-scru- 
pulous about the means of obtaining it, ignorant 
of native character, and heedless of native customs 
and native etiquette. The result of such a combi- 
nation of ingredients causes an explosion on the 
slightest occasion. The European is loud, con- 
temptuous, and abusive; the Malay cool and vin- 
dictive. The regal dignity has been insulted ; the 



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THE MALAY CHARACTER. 131 

Rajah has received " shame** hefore his court; 
evil counsellors are at hand to whisper the facility 
of revenge, and the advantages to he derived from 
it. The consequence too frequently follows — the 
captain and crew are krissed, and their vessel 
seized and appropriated. The repeated tragedy 
shocks the European mind; and the Malay has 
received, and continues to this day to receive, a 
character for treachery and hloodthirstiness. Even 
in these common cases an allowance must be made 
for the insults received, which doubtless on nu- 
merous occasions were very gross, and such flagrant 
violations of native customs as to merit death in 
native eyes; and we must bear in mind, that we 
never hear but one side of the tale, or only judge 
upon a bloody fact. It is from such samples of 
Malays that the general character is given by those 
who have only the limited means of trade for form- 
ing a judgment; but those who have known the 
people of the interior and lived amongst them, far 
removed from the influence of their Rajahs, have 
given them a very different character. Simple in 
their habits, they are neither treacherous nor blood- 
thirsty ; cheerful, polite, hospitable, gentle in their 
manners, they live in communities with fewer 
crimes and fewer punishments than most other 
people of the globe. They are passionately fond 
of their children, and indulgent even to a fault; 
and the ties of family relationship and good feel- 
ing continue in force for several generations. The 



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132 THE MALAY CHARACTER. 

feeling of the Malay, fostered by education, is acute, 
and his passions are roused if shame be put upon 
him; indeed, this dread of shame amounts to a 
disease ; and the evil is, that it has taken a wrong 
direction, being more the dread of exposure or 
abuse, than shame or contrition for any offence. 

" I have always found them good-tempered and 
obliging, wonderfully amenable to authority, and 
quite as sensible of benefits conferred, and as grate- 
ful, as other people of more favoured countries. 
Of course there is a reverse to this picture. The 
worst feature of the Malay character is the want 
of all candour or openness, and the restless spirit 
of cunning intrigue which animates them, from 
the highest to the lowest. Like other Asiatics, 
truth is a rare quality amongst them. They are 
superstitious, somewhat inclined to deceit in the 
ordinary concerns of life, and they have neither 
principle nor conscience when they have the means 
of oppressing an infidel, and a Dyak who is their 
inferior in civilisation and intellect. 

" If this character of the Malay be summed 
up, it will be anything but a bad one on the 
whole; it will present a striking contrast to the 
conduct and character of the Bajahs and their fol- 
lowers, and I think will convince any impartial 
inquirer, that it is easily susceptible of improve- 
ment. One of the most fertile sources of confu- 
sion is, classing at one time all the various nations 
of the Archipelago under the general name of 



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OPIUM-SMOKING, 133 

Malay, and at another restricting the same term 
to one people, not more ancient, not the foun- 
tain-head of the others, who issued from the centre 
of Sumatra, and spread themselves in a few parts 
of the Archipelago. 

" The French, the German, the English, Scotch, 
and Irish, are not more different in national cha- 
racter than the Malay, the Javanese, the Bugis, 
the Ulanun, and the Dyak ; and yet all these are 
indiscriminately called Malay, and a common cha- 
racter hestowed upon them. It would he as wise 
and as sensible to speak of an European character. 

"31st. — Started on a short excursion up the 
country, and slept at Siniawan. Here I found a 
young Pangeran (who came from Samhas with Mr. 
Hupe, a German missionary) enchained in the de- 
lights of opium. He left Sarawak for Sambas two 
months since, proceeded five hours' journey, and 
has since been smoking the drug and sleeping 
alternately. His life passes thus : between four 
and five he wakes, yawns, and smokes a pipe or 
two, which fits him for the labours of taking his 
guitar and playing for an hour. Then follows a 
slightly tasted meal, a pipe or two succeeds, and 
content and merriment for another hour or two. 
About eight o'clock the gentleman reclines, and 
pipe succeeds pipe till, towards daylight, he sinks 
intoxicated and stupid on his pillow, to wake up 
again in due course to play again the same part. 
Poor wretch ! two months of this life of dissipation 



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134 VILLAGE OF RA-AT. 

have reduced him to a shadow — two more months 
will consign him to his grave. 

"Feb. 1st. — Started after breakfast, and pad- 
dled against a strong current past Tundong, and, 
some distance above, left the main stream and en- 
tered the branch to the right, which is narrower, 
and rendered difficult of navigation by the number 
of fallen trees which block up the bed, and which 
sometimes obliged us to quit our boat, and remove 
all the kajang covers, so as to enable us to haul the 
boat under the huge trunks. The main stream 
was rapid and turbid, swollen by a fresh, and its 
increase of volume blocked up the waters of the tri- 
butary, so as to render the current inconsiderable. 
The Dyaks have thrown several bridges across the 
rivers, which they effect with great ingenuity ; but 
I was surprised on one of these bridges to observe 
the traces of the severe flood which we had about 
a fortnight since. The water on that occasion 
must have risen twenty feet perpendicularly, and 
many of the trees evidently but recently fallen, 
are the effects of its might. The walk to Rat, or 
Ra-at, is about two miles along a decent path. 
Nothing can be more picturesque than the hill 
and the village. The former is a huge lump (I 
think of granite), almost inaccessible, with bold 
bare sides, rising out of a rich vegetation at the 
base, and crowned with trees. The height is 
about 500 feet ; and about a hundred feet lower is 
a shoulder of the hill on which stands the eagle- 



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NAWANG. 135 

nest-like village of Ba-at, the ascent to which is 
like climbing by a ladder up the side of a house. 
This is one of the dwelling-places of the Sow 
Dyaks, a numerous but dispersed tribe. Their 
chief, or Orang Kaya, is an imbecile old man, and 
the virtual headship is in the hands of Nimok, 
of whom more hereafter. Our friends seemed 
pleased to see us, and Nimok apologised for so 
few of his people being present, as the harvest 
was approaching ; but being anxious to give a feast 
on the occasion of my first visit to their tribe, it 
was arranged that to-morrow I should shoot deer, 
and the day following return to the mountain. 
The views on either side from the village are 
beautiful — one view enchanting from its variety 
and depth, more especially when lighted up by 
the gleam of a showery sunshine, as I first saw 
it. Soon, however, after our arrival, the prospect 
was shut out by clouds, and a soaking rain de- 
scended, which lasted for the greater part of the 
night. 

"Qd. — Started after breakfast; and after a 
quiet walk of about three hours through a pleasant 
country of alternate hill and valley, we saw the 
valley of Nawang below us. Nawang is the pro- 
perty of the Singe Dyaks, and is cultivated by poor 
families, at the head of which is Niarak. The 
house contained three families, and our party was 
distributed amongst them, ourselves, i. e. Low, 
Crookshank, and myself, occupying one small 



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136 NAWANG. 

apartment with a man, his wife, and daughter. 
The valley presented one of the most charming 
scenes to be imagined — a clearing amid hills of 
moderate elevation, with the distant mountains in 
the background; a small stream ran through it, 
which, being dammed in several places, enables 
the cultivator to flood his padi-fields. The padi 
looked beautifully green. A few palms and plan- 
tains fringed the farm at intervals, whilst the 
surrounding hills were clothed in their native 
jungle. Here and there a few workmen in the 
fields heightened the effect ; and the scene, as 
evening closed, was one of calm repose, and, I 
may say,] of peace. The cocoa-nut, the betel, the 
sago, and the gno or gomati, are the four favourite 
palms of the Dyaks. In their simple mode of 
life, these four trees supply them many necessaries 
and luxuries. The sago furnishes food; and, 
after the pith has been extracted, the outer part 
forms a rough covering for the rougher floor, on 
which the farmer sleeps. The leaf of the sago 
is preferable for the roofing of houses to the ni- 
bong. The gomati, or gno, gives the black fibre 
which enables the owner to manufacture rope or 
cord for his own use ; and over and above, the 
toddy of this palm is a luxury daily enjoyed. 
When we entered, this toddy was produced in 
large bamboos, both for our use and that of our 
attendant Dyaks ; I thought it, however, very 
bad. In the evening we were out looking for 



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RETURN TO RA-AT. 137 

deer, and passed many a pleasant spot which once 
was a farm, and which will become a farm again. 
These the Dyaks called rapack, and they are the 
favourite feeding-grounds of the deer. To our 
disappointment we did not get a deer, which we 
had reckoned on as an improvement to our ordi- 
nary dinner-fare. A sound sleep soon descended 
on our party, and the night passed in quiet ; but 
it is remarkable how vigilant their mode of life 
renders the Dyak. Their sleep is short and in- 
terrupted ; they constantly rise, blow up the fire, 
and look out on the night: it is rarely that 
some or other of them are not on the move. 

" Yearly the Dyaks take new ground for 
their farm; yearly they fence it in, and under- 
go the labour of reclaiming new land ; for seven 
years the land lies fallow, and then may be used 
again. What a waste of labour I more especially 
in these rich and watered valleys, which, in the 
hands of the Chinese, might produce two crops 
yearly. 

« 3d. — Took leave of this pleasant valley, and 
by another and shorter road than we came reached 
Ka-at. We arrived in good time on the hill, and 
found every thing prepared for a feast. There 
was nothing new in this feast. A fowl was killed 
with the usual ceremony ; afterwards a hog. The 
hog is paid for by the company at a price com- 
mensurate with its size : a split bamboo is passed 
round the largest part of the body, and knots 



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138 FEAST AT RA-AT. 

tied on it at given distances; and according to 
the number of these knots are the number of 
pasus of padi for the price. 

" Our host of Nawang, Niarak, arrived to 
this feast with a plentiful supply of toddy ; and 
before the dance commenced, we were requested to 
take our seats. The circumstances of the tribe, 
and the ability of Nimok, rendered this ceremony 
interesting to me. The Sow tribe has long been 
split into four parties, residing at different places. 
Gunong Sow, the original locality, was attacked by 
the Sakarran Dyaks, and thence Nimok and his 
party retired to Ra-at. A second smaller party 
subsequently located at or near Bow, as being pre- 
ferable ; whilst the older divisions of Jaguen and 
Ahuss lived at the places so named. Nimok's 
great desire was to gather together his scattered 
tribe, and to become de facto its head. My pre- 
sence and the Datus* was a good opportunity for 
gathering the tribe ; and Nimok hoped to give 
them the impression that we countenanced his pro- 
position. The dances over, Nimok pronounced 
an oration : he dwelt on the advantages of union ; 
how desirous he was to benefit his tribe ; how 
constantly it was his custom to visit Sarawak in 
order to watch over the interests of the tribe — the 
trouble was his, the advantage theirs ; but how, 
without union, could they hope to gain any ad- 
vantage — whether the return of their remaining 
captive women, or any other ? He proposed this 



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nimok's speech. 139 

union; and that, after the padi was ripe, they 
should all live at Ba-at, where, as a body, they 
were always ready to obey the commands of the 
Tuan Besar or the Datu. 

" This was the substance of Nimok's speech. 
But the effect of his oratory was not great ; for the 
Bow, and other portions of the tribe, heard qoldly 
his proposition, though they only opposed it in a 
few words. It was evident they had no orator at 
all a match for Nimok : a few words from Niana 
drew forth a second oration. He glanced at their 
former state ; he spoke with animation of their 
enemies, and dwelt on their great misfortune at 
Sow ; he attacked the Sing& as the cause of these 
misfortunes : and spoke long and eloquently of 
things past, of things present, and things to come. 
He was seated the whole time ; his voice varied 
with his subject, and was sweet and expressive; 
his action was always moderate, principally laying 
down the law with his finger on the mats. Nia- 
rak, our Sing£ friend, attempted a defence of his 
tribe ; but he had drunk px> freely of his own 
arrack ; and his speech was received with much 
laughter, in which he joined. At this juncture I 
retired, after saying a few words ; but the talk 
was kept up for several hours after, amid feasting 
and drinking. 

"4M. — After breakfast, walked to our boats, 
and at six p.m. reached home, just in time; 
weather very rainy. 



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140 NEWS FROM SADONG. 



<c ' 



10th. — Nothing to remark in these days, ex- 
cept the ordinary course of business and of life. 

" 13th. — The Tumangong returned from Sa- 
dong, and brought me a far better account of that 
place than I had hoped for. It appears that they 
really are desirous to govern well, and to protect 
the Dyaks ; and fully impressed with the caution 
I gave them, that unless they protect and foster 
their tribes, they will soon lose them from their 
removal to Sarawak. 

" One large tribe, the Maluku, a branch of the 
Sibnowans, are, it appears, very desirous of being 
under my protection. It is a tempting offer, and I 
should like to have them ; but I must not deprive 
the rulers of Sadong of the means of living com- 
fortably, and the power of paying revenue. Protect 
them I both can and will. There are great num- 
bers of Sarawak people at Sadong, all looking out 
for birds-nests; new caves have been explored; 
mountains ascended for the first time in the search. 
It shews the progress of good government and se- 
curity, and, at the same time, is characteristic of 
the Malay character. They will endure fatigue, 
and run risks, on the chance of finding this valu- 
able commodity ; but they will not labour steadily, 
or engage in pursuits which would lead to fortune 
by a slow progress. 

" 15th. — Panglima Laksa, the chief of the Un- 
dop tribe, arrived, to request, as the Badjows and 
Sakarrans had recently killed his people, that I 



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CONFERENCES WITH DYAK CHIEFS. 141 

would permit him to retort. At the same time 
came Ahong Kapi, the Sakarran Malay, with 
eight Sakarran chiefs, named Si Miow, one of the 
heads, and the rest Tadong, Lengang, Barunda, 
Badendang, Si Bunie, Si Ludum, and Kuno, the 
representatives of other heads. Nothing could he 
more satisfactory than the interview, just over. 
They denied any knowledge or connexion with the 
Badjows, who had killed some Dyaks at Undop, 
and said all that I could desire. They promised to 
ohey me, and look upon me as their chief; they 
desired to trade, and would guarantee any Sarawak 
people who came to their river ; but they could not 
answer for all the Dyaks in the Batang Lupar. 
It is well known, however, that the Batang Lupar 
Dyaks are more peaceable than those of Sakarran, 
and will be easily managed ; and as for the break- 
ing out of these old feuds, it is comparatively of 
slight importance, compared to the grand settle- 
ment ; for as our influence increases we can easily 
put down the separate sticks of the bundle. There 
is a noble chance, if properly used I It may be 
remarked that many of their names are from 
some peculiarity of person, or from some quality. 
Tadong is a poisonous snake ; but, on inquiry, I 
found the young chief so named had got the name 
from being black. They are certainly a fine- 
looking race. 

" 17th. — Plenty of conferences with the Sa- 
karran chiefs ; and, as far as I can judge, they are 



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142 CONFERENCES WITH DYAK CHIEFS, 

sincere in the main, though soma reserves there 
may be. Treachery I do not apprehend from 
them; but, of course, it will be impossible, over 
a very numerous, powerful, and warlike tribe, to 
gain such an ascendancy of a sudden as at once 
to correct their evil habits." 

Here again Mr. Brooke appears to have been 
placed on the horns of a dilemma by his ignorance 
of the views of the British Government. Had his 
position in Borneo been certain — had he either 
been supported or deserted — his path of policy 
would have been clear : whereas he evidently did 
not know what the morrow would bring forth ; 
whether it would find him with an English force 
at his back, or abandoned to his own resources. 



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CHAPTER VII. 

Mr. Brooke's memorandum on the piracy of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. The measures requisite for its suppression, and for 
the consequent extension of British commerce in that im- 
portant locality. 

I cannot afford my readers a more accurate idea 
of the present state of piracy in the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, of the best mode of suppressing it, and of 
the vast field which the island of Borneo offers for 
the extension of British commerce, than by quoting 
a few of Mr, Brooke's observations on these im- 
portant subjects, written before the operations of 
the squadron under command of Bear- Admiral Sir 
Thomas Cochrane took place, of which an account 
will be given in Chapter VIII. With reference 
to the first topic, piracy, Mr. Brooke remarks : 

" The piracy of the Eastern Archipelago is en- 
tirely distinct from piracy in the Western world ; 
for, from the condition of the various governments, 
the facilities offered by natural situation, and the 
total absence of all restraint from European nations, 
the pirate communities have attained an import- 
ance on the coasts and islands most removed from 
foreign settlements. Thence they issue forth and 



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144 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

commit depredations on the native trade, enslave 
the inhabitants at the entrance of rivers, and at- 
tack ill-armed or stranded European vessels ; and 
roving from place to place, they find markets for 
their slaves and plunder. 

" The old-established Malay governments (such 
as Borneo and Sooloo), weak and distracted, are, 
probably without exception, participators in or 
victims to piracy ; and in many cases both — pur- 
chasing from one set of pirates, and enslaved and 
plundered by another ; and whilst their dependen- 
cies are abandoned, the unprotected trade lan- 
guishes from the natural dread of the better dis- 
posed natives to undertake a coasting voyage. 

"It is needless to dwell upon the evil effects 
of piracy ; but before venturing an opinion on the 
most effectual means of suppression, I propose 
briefly to give an account of such pirate commu- 
nities as I am acquainted with. 

"The pirates on the coast of Borneo may be 
classed into those who make long voyages in large 
heavy-armed prahus, such as the Dlanuns, Ba- 
lagnini, &c; and the lighter Dyak fleets, which 
make short but destructive excursions in swift 
prahus, and seek to surprise rather than openly to 
attack their prey. A third, and probably the 
worst class, are usually half-bred Arab Seriffs, 
who, possessing themselves of the territory of some 
Malay state, form a nucleus for piracy, a rendez- 
vous and market for all the roving fleets j and 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 145 

although occasionally sending out their own fol- 
lowers, they more frequently seek profit hy making 
advances, in food, arms, and gunpowder, to all who 
will agree to repay them at an exorbitant rate in 
slaves. 

"The Dyaks of Sarebus and Sakarran were 
under the influence of two Arab Seriffs, who em- 
ployed them on piratical excursions, and shared in 
equal parts the plunder obtained. I had once the 
opportunity of counting ninety-eight boats about 
to start on a cruise ; and reckoning the crew of 
each boat at the moderate average of twenty-five 
men, it gives a body of 2450 men on a piratical 
excursion. The" piracies of these Arab Seriffs and 
their Dyaks were so notorious, that it is need- 
less to detail them here ; but one curious feature, 
which throws a light on the state of society, I 
cannot forbear mentioning. On all occasions of a 
Dyak fleet being about to make a piratical excur- 
sion, a gong was beat round the town ordering a 
particular number of Malays to embark; and in 
case any one failed to obey, he was fined the sum 
of thirty rupees by the Seriff of the place. 

" The blow struck by Captain Keppel, of her 
Majesty's ship Dido, on these two communities 
was so decisive as to have put an entire end 
to their piracies ; the leaders, Seriff Sahib and 
Seriff Muller, have fled ; the Malay population has 
been dispersed j and the Dyaks so far humbled 
as to sue for protection ; and in future, by substi- 

VOL. II. l 



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146 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

tuting local Malay rulers of good character in lieu 
of the piratical Seriffs, a check will be placed on 
the Dyaks, and they may be broken of their pira- 
tical habits, in as far as interferes with the trade 
of the coast. 

"The next pirate horde we meet with is a 
mixed community of Illanuns and Badjows (or 
sea-gipsies) located at Tampasuk, a few miles up 
a small river ; they are not formidable in number, 
and their depredations are chiefly committed on 
the Spanish territory ; their market, until recently, 
being Bruni, or Borneo Proper. They might rea- 
dily be dispersed and driven back to their own 
country ; and the Dusuns, or villagers (as the name ' 
signifies), might be protected and encouraged. 
Seriff Houseman, a half-bred Arab, is located in 
Maludu Bay, and has, by account, from fifteen 
hundred to two thousand men with him. He is 
beyond doubt a pirate direct and indirect, and 
occasionally commands excursions in person, or 
employs the Illanuns of Tampasuk, and others to 
the eastward, who for their own convenience make 
common cause with him. He has no pretension 
to the territory he occupies ; and the authority he 
exerts (by means of his piratical force) over the 
interior tribes in his vicinity, and on the island of 
Palawan, is of the worst and most oppressive de* 
scription. This Seriff has probably never come 
in contact with any Europeans, and consequently 
openly professes to hold their power in scorn. 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 147 

" To my own knowledge Seriff Houseman seized 
and sold into slavery a boat's crew (about twenty 
men) of the Sultana, a merchant ship, which 
was burned in the Palawan passage. Within the 
last few months he has plundered and burned an 
European vessel stranded near the Mangsi Isles ; 
and to shew his entire independence of control, 
his contempt for European power, and his deter- 
mination to continue in his present course, he has 
threatened to attack the city of Bruni, in conse- 
quence of the Bruni government having entered 
into a treaty with her Majesty's government for 
the discouragement and suppression of piracy. 
This fact speaks volumes ; an old-established and 
recognised Malay government is to be attacked by 
a lawless adventurer, who has seized on a portion 
of its territory, and lives by piracy, for venturing 
to treat with a foreign power for the best purposes. 
If any further proof of piracy were requisite, it 
would readily be established by numerous wit- 
nesses (themselves the victims), and by the most 
solemn declaration of the Bruni authorities, that 
peaceful traders on the high seas have been 
stopped by the prahus of this Seriff and his 
allies, their vessels seized, their property plun- 
dered, and their persons enslaved : numerous wit- 
nesses could attest their having been reduced to 
slavery and detained in the very household of 
Seriff Houseman I When, however, the facts of 
his having sold into slavery the crew of a British 



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148 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

vessel (which has been established before the Sin- 
gapore authorities) come to be known, I conceive 
every other proof of the character of this person is 
completely superfluous. 

" The indirect piracy of Seriff Houseman is 
even more mischievous than what is directly com- 
mitted ; for he supplies the Balagnini (a restless 
piratical tribe, hereafter to be mentioned) with 
food, powder, arms, salt, &c. under the agree- 
ment that they pay him on their return from 
the cruise, at the rate of five slaves for every 
100 rupees worth of goods. The Balagnini are 
in consequence enabled, through his assistance, 
to pirate effectively, which otherwise they would 
not be able to do; as, from their locality, they 
would find it difficult to obtain fire-arms and 
gunpowder. The most detestable part of this 
traffic, however, is Seriff Houseman selling, in 
cold blood, such of these slaves as are Borneons 
to Pangeran Usop, of Bruni, for 100 rupees for 
each slave, and Pangeran Usop re-selling each for 
200 rupees to their relations in Bruni. Thus 
this vile Seriff (without taking into account the 
enormous prices charged for his goods in the first 
instance) gains 500 per cent for every slave, and 
Pangeran Usop clears 100 per cent on the flesh 
of his own countrymen, thereby de facto becoming 
a party to piracy, though doubtless veiled under 
the guise of compassion. 

" More might be added on the subject of the 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 149 

piracies committed by this Seriff; and it could 
easily be shewn that the evils accruing from them 
affect not only the peaceful trader, but extend to 
the peaceful agriculturist; but, for the sake of 
brevity, I deem it sufficient to add, that he ex- 
ercises the same malign influence on the north 
coast as Seriff Sahib exercised on the north-west ; 
and that, having surrounded himself by a body 
of pirates, he arrogates the rights of sovereignty, 
defies European power, contemns every right prin- 
ciple, and threatens the recognised and legitimate 
governments of the Archipelago. 

" The Balagnini inhabit a cluster of small 
islands somewhere in the vicinity of Sooloo ; they 
are of the Badjow or sea-gipsy tribe, a wander- 
ing race, whose original country has never been 
ascertained. At present, as far as I can learn, 
they are not dependent on Sooloo, though it is 
probable they may be encouraged by some of the 
Rajahs of that place, and that they find a slave- 
market there. 

" The Balagnini cruise in large prahus, and 
to each prahu a fleet sampan is attached, which, 
on occasion, can carry from ten to fifteen men. 
They seldom carry large guns, like the Illanuns, 
but, in addition to their other arms, big lelas 
(brass pieces, carrying from a one to a three-pound 
ball), spears, swords, &c. They use long poles 
with barbed iron points, with which, during an 



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150 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

engagement or flight, they hook their prey. By 
means of the fleet sampans already mentioned, 
they are able to capture all small boats ; and 
it is a favourite device with them to disguise 
one or two men, whilst the rest lie concealed in 
the bottom of the boat, and thus to surprise 
prahus at sea, and fishermen or others at the 
mouths of rivers. By being disguised as Chinese 
they have carried off numbers of that nation from 
the Sambas and Pontiana rivers. The cruising- 
grounds of these pirates are very extensive; they 
frequently make the circuit of Borneo, proceed 
as far as the south of Celebes ; and in the other 
direction have been met off Tringanu, Calantan, 
and Patani. Gillolo and the Moluccas lie within 
easy range, and it is probable that Papua is oc- 
casionally visited by them. It will readily be 
conceived how harassing to trade must be the 
continued depredations of the Balagnini pirates, 
and more especially to the trade of Bruni, which 
seems, from the unwarlike habits of the natives, 
the chosen field of their operations. The number 
of Borneons yearly taken into slavery is very con- 
siderable, as a fleet of six or eight boats usually 
hangs about the island of Labuan, to cut off the 
trade, and to catch the inhabitants of the city. 
The Borneons, from being so harassed by these 
pirates, call the easterly wind ' the pirate wind/ 
The Balagnini commence cruising on the north- 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 151 

west coast about the middle of March; and re- 
turn, or remove to the eastern side of the island, 
about the end of November. 

" Of Magindano, or Mindanao, we are at the 
present time very ignorant ; but we know that the 
inhabitants are warlike and numerous, and that 
that part of the island called Illanun Bay sends 
forth the most daring pirates of the Archipelago. 
The first step requisite is, to gain more infor- 
mation concerning them, — to form an acquaint- 
ance with some of their better-disposed chiefs, — 
and subsequently we might act against them with 
a suitable force; but it would be rash and pre- 
mature, in the present state of our knowledge, to 
come in contact with them in their own country. 
On one occasion I met eighteen Illanun boats on 
neutral ground, and learned from their two chiefs 
that they had been two years absent from home ; 
and from the Papuan negro-slaves on board, it was 
evident that their cruise had extended from the 
most eastern islands of the Archipelago to the 
north-western coast of Borneo. 

" Having now enumerated the pirates I have 
become acquainted with since my residence in 
Sarawak, I shall proceed to offer an opinion on the 
best mode for the suppression of piracy in these 
seas. 

"In the first place, a blow should be struck 
at the piratical communities with which we are 
already acquainted, and struck with a force which 



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152 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

should convince all other pirates of the hopeless- 
ness of resistance; subsequently the recognised 
Malay governments may be detached from all 
communication with pirates j and, joining con- 
ciliation with punishment, laying down the broad 
distinction of piracy and no piracy, we may foster 
those who abandon their evil habits, and punish 
those who adhere to them. 

" A system of supervision will, however, be ne- 
cessary to carry out these measures : our knowledge 
of the native states must be improved ; and as we 
become able to discriminate between the good and 
the bad, our sphere of action may be enlarged, and 
we may act with decision against all descriptions of 
pirates j against the indirect as well as the direct 
pirate ; against the receiver of stolen goods as well 
as the thief ; and against the promoter as well as 
the actual perpetrator of piracy. 

" I would especially urge that, to eradicate the 
evil, the pirate-haunts must be burned and de- 
stroyed, and the communities dispersed ; for merely 
to cruise against pirate-prahus, and to forbear at- 
tacking them until we see them commit a piracy, 
is a hopeless and an endless task, harassing to our 
men, and can be attended with but very partial 
and occasional success ; whereas, on the contrary 
principle, what pirate would venture to pursue his 
vocation if his home be endangered — if he be made 
to feel in his own person the very ills he inflicts 
upon others ? 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 153 

"A question may arise as to what constitutes 
piracy ; and whether, in our efforts to suppress it, 
we may not he interfering with the right of na- 
tive states to war one upon another. On the first 
point, it appears clear to me, that the plunder or 
seizure of a peaceful and lawful trader on the high 
seas constitutes an act of piracy, without any re- 
ference to the nation or colour of the injured 
party ; for if we limit our construction of piracy, 
we shall, in most cases, he in want of sufficient evi- 
dence to convict, and the whole native trade of the 
Archipelago will be left at the mercy of pirates, 
much to the injury of our own commerce and of 
our settlement of Singapore. 

" On the second point, we can only concede the 
right of war to recognised states ; and even then 
we must carefully avoid introducing the refine- 
ments of European international law amongst a 
rude and semi-civilised people, who will make our 
delicacy a cloak for crime, and declare war merely 
for the sake of committing piracy with impunity. 
On the contrary, all chiefs who have seized on 
territory and arrogate independence (making this 
independence a plea for piracy) can never he al- 
lowed the right of declaring war, or entering on 
hostilities with their neighbours j for, as I have 
before remarked, all native trade must in that case 
be at an end, as the piratical chiefs, no longer in 
dread of punishment from European powers, would 
doubtless declare war against every unwarlike na- 



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154 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

tive state which they did not need as a market for 
the sale of their slaves and plunder. 

" Practically acting, however, on the broad prin- 
ciple, that the seizure of any lawful trader consti- 
tutes piracy, I consider no injustice could be done 
to the native states, and no interference occur with 
their acknowledged rights ; for in practice it would 
be easy to discriminate a war between native na- 
tions from the piracies of lawless hordes of men ; 
and without some such general principle, no exe- 
cutive officer could act with the requisite decision 
and promptitude to ensure the eradication of this 
great evil. 

" With a post such as is proposed to be estab- 
lished, our measures for the suppression of piracy 
(after the punishment of Seriff Houseman and 
the Balagnini) would advance step by step, as our 
knowledge increased, and with alternate concilia- 
tion and severity, as the case might require. By 
detaching the recognised governments from the 
practice, and gradually forming amongst the chief 
men a friendly and English party opposed to pi- 
racy, we should, I doubt not, speedily obtain our 
principal object of clearing the sea of marauders, 
and ultimately correct the .natural propensity of 
the natives for piracy. 

" In order to extend our commerce in these seas 
generally, and more particularly on the n.w. coast 
of Borneo, it is requisite, 1st, that piracy be sup- 
pressed ; 2dly, that the native governments be set- 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 155 

tied, so as to afford protection to the poorer and 
producing classes; and, Sdly, that our knowledge 
of the interior should be extended, and our inter- 
course with the various tribes more frequent. 

" That our commerce may be largely extended, 
is so clear that I shall not stop to detail the pro- 
ductions of the island of Borneo, as it will suffice 
here to state generally that all authorities agree 
in representing it as one of the richest portions 
of the globe, and in climate, soil, and mineral and 
vegetable productions, inferior to no portion of the 
same extent. 

"If these opinions be true — and, from my ex- 
perience, I believe them to be so — it follows that 
• the materials for an extensive and extended trade 
exist, and only require development ; whilst a nu- 
merous and industrious though wild population, 
which inhabits the interior, is debarred from all 
intercourse with Europeans from the badness of 
Malay government. 

" On the first requisite for the development of 
commerce I need add nothing further, as it is a 
duty incumbent on all governments to eradicate 
piracy at any cost; and in the present case it 
would not be found a difficult or tedious task. 

"A post like Labuan or Balambangan would 
beyond doubt give an impetus to trade, merely 
from the freedom from all restrictions, and the 
absence of all exactions, which the natives would 
enjoy ; and (piracy being checked) countries which 



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156 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

now lie fallow would, from their proximity, be in- 
duced to bring their produce into market. 

" This limited extension is, however, of little 
moment when compared with the results which 
must attend our exerting a beneficial influence 
over the native governments for the purposes of 
affording protection to the poorer classes, insur- 
ing safety to the trader, and opening a field for 
the planter or the miner, 

" The slightest acquaintance with the north-west 
coast of Borneo would convince any observer of the 
ease with which these objects might be effected; 
for the native government, being in a state of de- 
cadence, requires protection, and would willingly 
act justly towards traders and capitalists, and en- 1 
courage their enterprises, in order to continue on 
friendly terms with any European power located 
in their vicinity. The numerous rivers on the 
coast, with their local rulers, are harassed by the 
demands of every petty Pangeran ; and whilst the 
sovereign is defrauded of his revenue, which the 
people would cheerfully pay, and his territory 
ruined, this host of useless retainers (acting al- 
ways in his name) gain but very slight personal 
profits to counterbalance all the mischief they do. 

" The principal feature is the weakness of the 
governments, both of the capital and its depend- 
encies ; and in consequence of this weakness there 
is a strong desire for European protection, for 
European enterprise, and for any change effected 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 157 

by Europeans. Supposing Labuan to be taken 
as a naval post, I consider that European capital 
might with safety be employed in Bruni. 

"In the rivers contiguous to Sarawak, the 
presence of Europeans would be hailed with joy, 
not only by the Dyaks, but by the Malays ; and 
subsequently it would depend on their own conduct 
to what degree they retained the good will of the 
natives ; but with ordinary conciliation, and a de- 
cent moral restraint on their actions, I feel assured 
that their persons and property would be safe, and 
no obstruction offered to fair trade or to mining 
operations. 

" Supposing, as I have before said, the occupa- 
tion of Labuan by the English, our influence over 
the government of Bruni would be complete j and 
one of our principal objects would be to maintain 
this ascendancy, as a means of extending our 
trade. 

" Our position at Labuan would, it must be borne 
in mind, differ from the position we occupied in 
relation to the native princes in Singapore. In 
the latter case, the native princes were without 
means, without followers, and with a paltry and 
useless territory, and became our pensioners. In 
the case of Labuan, we shall have an acknow- 
ledged independent state in our vicinity ; and for 
the prosperity of our settlement we must retain 
our ascendancy by the support of the government 
of Muda Hassim. Let our influence be of the 



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158 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

mildest kind. Let us, by supporting the legiti- 
mate government, ameliorate the condition of the 
people by this influence. Let us pay every honour 
to the native princes ; let us convince them of our 
entire freedom from all selfish views of territorial 
aggrandisement on the mainland of Borneo ; and 
we shall enjoy so entire a confidence, that vir- 
tually the coast will become our own without the 
trouble or expense of possession. I have impressed 
it on the Rajah Muda .Hassim and Fangeran 
Bu^rudeen, that the readiest and most direct way 
of obtaining revenues from their various posses- 
sions will be by commuting all their demands for 
a stated yearly sum of money from each ; and by 
this direct taxation, to which Muda Hassim and 
his brother seem ready to accede, the system of 
fraud and exaction would be abolished, the native 
mind tranquillised, and the legitimate govern- 
ment would become the protector rather than the 
oppressor of its dependencies. By this measure 
likewise, a tone might be imparted to the native 
chiefs and rulers of rivers ; and the people at large 
taught to feel that, after the payment of a speci- 
fied sum, a right existed to resist all extra de- 
mands. Besides this, these Rajahs are convinced 
that a certain yearly revenue is what they require, 
and is the only means by which they can retain 
their independence; and I have impressed it on 
their minds that, to gain a revenue, they must fos- 
ter trade and protect Europeans in their dealings. 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. 159 

" If Labuan were English, and if the sea were 
clear of pirates, I see no obstacle to bringing 
these and other measures into immediate opera- 
tion ; and I am assured we should have the 
sincere and hearty co-operation of the Borneon 
government. 

" Since the advent of Europeans in the Archi- 
pelago, the tendency of the Polynesian govern- 
ments generally has been to decay ; here the ex- 
periment may be fairly tried on the smallest scale 
of expense, whether a beneficial European influ- 
ence may not re-animate a falling state, and at 
the same time extend our own commerce. We 
are here devoid of the stimulus which has urged 
us on to conquest in India. We incur no risk of 
the collision of the two races; we occupy a small 
station in the vicinity of a friendly and unwarlike 
people ; and we aim at the development of native 
countries through native agency. 

" If this tendency to decay and extinction be 
inevitable ; if this adaptation of European policy 
to a native state be found unable to arrest the 
fall of the Borneon government, — yet we shall 
retain a people already habituated to European 
manners, industrious interior races, and at a future 
period, if deemed necessary, settlements gradually 
developed in a rich and fertile country. We shall 
have a post in time of war highly advantageous, 
as commanding a favourable position relative to 
China j we shall extend our commerce, suppress 



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160 ON THE PIRACY OF THE 

piracy, and prevent the present and prospective 
advantages from falling into other hands ; and we 
shall do this at a small expense. 

" I own the native development through their 
own exertions is hut a favourite theory ; but what- 
ever may be the fate of the government of Borneo, 
the people will still remain ; and if they be pro- 
tected, and enabled to live in quiet security, I 
cannot entertain a doubt of the country's becoming 
a highly productive one, eminently calculated as a 
field for British enterprise and capital. 

" If the development of the resources of the 
country can be effected by its native rulers, it will 
be a noble task performed; but if it fail, the 
people of the coast will still advance and form 
governments for themselves, under British in- 
fluence. 

" In concluding this hasty and general view of 
the subject, I may remark that commerce might be 
extended and capital laid out on the north-west 
coast of Borneo, to an amount to which it is diffi- 
cult to fix limits, as the country is capable of 
producing most articles of commerce in demand 
from this quarter of the world ; and the natives 
(who, as far as we know them, are an unwarlike, 
mild, and industrious race,) would receive our 
manufactures, from which they are now in a great 
measure debarred. I have not alluded to any 
other countries of the Archipelago ; for we must 
first become acquainted with them j we must be- 



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MALAYAN ARCHIPELAGO. l6l 

come intimate, cultivate an English party, and ac- 
custom them to our manners; and probably the 
same conciliatory policy, the same freedom from 
design, which has succeeded in Borneo, will succeed 
elsewhere, if pushed with temper and patience. 

" The general principle ought to be — to en- 
courage established governments, such as those of 
Borneo and Sooloo, provided they will with all 
sincerity abandon piracy, and assist in its sup- 
pression j but at the same time, by supervision to 
convince ourselves of the fact, and keep them in the 
right path ; for all treaties with these native states 
(and we have had several) are but so much waste 
paper, unless we see them carried into execution. 

" I have now only to mention the third means 
for the extension of commerce. Our intercourse 
with the natives of the interior should be frequent 
and intimate : these people (beyond where I am 
acquainted with them) are represented as very nu- 
merous, hospitable, and industrious ; and a friendly 
intercourse would develop the resources of their 
country, draw its produce to our markets, and give 
the natives a taste for British manufactures. This 
intercourse, however, must be prudently introduced 
and carefully advanced ; for to bring these wild 
people into contact with ignorant and arrogant 
Europeans would produce bloodshed and confusion 
in a month. In Borneo, it is an advantage that 
the two races cannot come in collision; for from 
its climate it precludes all idea of colonisation ; 

VOL. II. M 



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162 ON THE PIRACY OF THE MALAYS. 

and that which is next to an impossibility, the 
maintaining a good understanding between ignorant 
civilised men and ignorant savages. It is a field 
for commerce and capital, but no violent change 
of native customs should be attempted ; and in this 
way alone, by gradual means, can we really benefit 
the natives and ourselves. When we consider the 
amount of produce obtained from the countries 
of the Archipelago, and their consumption of 
British manufactures, under the worst forms of 
government, living in a state of distraction and in- 
security, and exposed to the depredations of pirates 
at sea, — we may form some idea how vast may be 
the increase, should peace and security be intro- 
duced amongst them ; and judging of the future 
by the past — by the limited experiment made at 
Sarawak — we may hope that the task is neither 
so difficult nor so uncertain as was formerly sup- 
posed." 



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CHAPTEE VIII. 

Arrival of Captain Bethune and Mr. Wise. Mr. Brooke ap- 
pointed her Majesty's Agent in Borneo. Sails for Borneo 
Proper. Muda Hassim's measures for the suppression of pi- 
racy. Defied by Seriff Houseman. Audience of the Sultan, 
Muda Hassim, and the Pangerans. Visit to Labuan. Com- 
parative eligibility of Labuan and Balambangan for settlement. 
Coal discovered in Labuan. Mr. Brooke goes to Singapore 
and visits Admiral Sir T. Cochrane. The upas-tree. Pro- 
ceeds with the Admiral to Borneo Proper. Punishment of 
Pangeran Usop. The battle of Malludu. Seriff Houseman 
obliged to fly. Visit to Balambangan. Mr. Brooke parts 
with the Admiral, and goes to Borneo Proper. An attempt 
of Pangeran Usop defeated. His flight, and pursuit by Pan- 
geran Budrudeen. Triumphant reception of Mr. Brooke in 
Borneo. Returns to Sarawak. 

" February 25th* — Borneo River, H.M.S. Driver. 
Scarcely, on the 17th, had I finished writing, 
when a boat from her Majesty's steamer Driver, 
bringing Captain Bethune and my friend Wise, 
arrived. How strange, the same day, and almost 
the same hour I was penning my doubts and diffi- 
culties, when a letter arrives from Lord Aberdeen 
appointing me confidential Agent in Borneo to 
her Majesty, and directing me to proceed to the 
capital, with a letter addressed to the Sultan and 



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164 PROCEED TO BORNEO PROPER. 

the Bajah Muda Hassim, in reply to the docu- 
ments requesting the assistance of the British 
government to effect the suppression of piracy ! 

" My friend Wise I was glad to see ; and a 
few hours 5 conversation convinced me how greatly 
I have been indebted to his exertions for success 
and my present position. His knowledge of trade, 
his cheerfulness regarding our pecuniary future, 
all impart confidence. Thus I may say, without 
much self-flattery, that the first wedge has been 
driven which may rive Borneo open to commerce 
and civilisation, which may bestow happiness on 
its inhabitants. Captain Bethune is commissioned 
to report on the best locality for a settlement or 
station on the n.w. coast. I will only say here, 
that no other person's appointment would have 
pleased me so well : he is intelligent, educated, 
and liberal, and in concert with him I am too 
happy to work. 

" On the 18th February the Driver arrived ; 
on the 21st left Sarawak, and at noon of the 
24th arrived at the anchorage in Borneo river, 
having towed the gun-boat against the n.e. mon- 
soon. Mr. Williamson was despatched to Borneo, 
and found all right. They were delighted with 
our coming and our mission, and the Sultan him- 
self has laid aside his fears. A few presents 
have been sent, which will delight the natives ; 
and all will prosper. 

"26th. — Budrudeen arrived; and from him I 



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SERIFF HOUSEMAN. 165 

learned the politics of Borneo since my last visit, 
when Muda Hassim was reinstated in authority. 

"As my mission refers more especially to pi- 
racy, I may here notice Muda Hassim's measures 
relative to that subject. Shortly after his arrival 
he addressed a letter to the Illanuns of Tampa- 
suk, informing them of the engagement with the 
English to discourage and suppress piracy, ad- 
vising them to desist, and ordering them not to 
visit Borneo until he (Muda Hassim) was con- 
vinced they were pirates no longer. This is good 
and candid. Muda Hassim at the same time re- 
quested Seriff Schaik to address a communication 
to Seriff Houseman of Malludu, acquainting him 
with his engagements, and the resolve of the Eu- 
ropeans to suppress piracy ; adding that he was 
friends with the English, and no man could be 
friends with the English who encouraged piracy. 
The answer to this letter of Seriff Schaik, as 
far as I have yet learned, is a positive defiance. 
Three months since, I am informed, a brig or 
schooner was wrecked at a place called Mangsi, 
and she has been completely plundered and burned 
by Seriff Houseman : her cargo consisted of red 
woollens, fine white cloths, Turkey red cotton 
handkerchiefs, tin, pepper, Malacca canes, rat- 
tans, &c. &c. This evidently is a vessel bound 
to China, whether English or not is doubtful: 
the crew have not been heard of or seen here, 
and it is to be hoped may have reached Manilla. 



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166 AUDIENCE OF THE SULTAN. 

" %8th. — Borneo, or Bruni city. Left the 
Driver at 9 a.m. in the gun-boat, with the pin- 
nace and cutter in company : a fine breeze car- 
ried us to Pulo Chermin, and nearly the whole 
way to Pulo Combong, where we met with the 
state-boat bearing the letter. We entered the 
town straggling, and the letter having been re- 
ceived with firing of guns, banners displayed, and 
all the respect due to a royal communication, we 
were dragged in haste to the audience ; the 
Sultan on his throne, Muda Hassim, and every 
principal Pangeran waiting for us — Pangeran 
Usop to boot. The letter was read; twenty-one 
guns fired. I told tbem in all civility that I 
was deputed by her Majesty the Queen to ex- 
press her feelings of good will, and to offer every 
assistance in repressing piracy in these seas. 
The Sultan stared. Muda Hassim said, "We 
are greatly indebted ; it is good, very good." 
Then, heated, and sunburnt, and tired, we took 
our leave, and retired to the house prepared 
for us. 

"March 1st. — A long conference with Budru- 
deen, when, I believe, we exhausted all the im- 
portant topics of Borneo politics : subsequently we 
visited Muda Hassim and the Sultan. The latter 
was profuse in his kind expressions, and inquired 
of the interpreter when the English would come 
to Labuan j adding, " I want to have the Euro- 
peans near me," On this head, however, he gained 



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LABUAN. 167 

no information. The presents were given to the 
Sultan and Rajah. 

"5th. — In the evening visited Muda Hassim, 
and heard news from Malludu, which, divested of 
exaggerations, amounted to this : that Seriff House- 
man was ready to receive us ; was fortified, and 
had collected a fleet of boats j and that if the 
English did not come and attack him, he would 
come and attack Borneo, because they were in treaty 
with Europeans. After leaving Muda Hassim, 
paid the Sultan a visit. 

" 10th. — I have nothing to say of our departure. 
Budrudeen accompanied us to the Mooarra, and 
thence, on Friday evening, we crossed to the an- 
chorage of Labuan. 

" 1SWA. — Labuan. An island of about fifty feet 
high ; twenty-five miles in circumference j woody ; 
timber good ; water from wells and a few small 
streams, which, after a drought, are dry; natives 
say, water never fails. Anchorage good for the 
climate ; well protected from the n.e. ; not exten- 
sive ; situation of contemplated town low ; climate 
healthy, i. e. the same as Borneo ; soil, as far as 
seen, sandy or light sandy loam. Coal found near 
the extreme n.e. point : by native reports it is 
likewise to be found in many other places ; traces 
of coal are frequent in the sandstone strata. An- 
chorage not difficult of defence against an Euro- 
pean enemy j entrance sufficiently broad and deep 
between two islands, with a shoal : vide chart. 



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168 L ABU AN. 

The island of Labuan, for the purposes of refuge 
for shipwrecked vessels, of a windward post re- 
lative to China, for the suppression of piracy, and 
the extension of our trade, is well suited j it is no 
paradise ; and any other island, with good climate, 
wood, and water, would suit as well. Its powerful 
recommendation is its being in the neighbourhood 
of an unwarlike and friendly people. There is no 
other island on the n.w. coast ; and the abandoned 
Balambangan, to the northward of Borneo, is the 
only other place which could by possibility answer. 
The comparison between Balambangan and La- 
buan may be stated as follows. Balambangan, as 
a windward post relative to China, is superior ; 
and it commands in time of war the inner passage 
to Manilla, and the eastern passages to China by 
the Straits of Makassar. Of its capabilities of de- 
fence we know nothing. It was surprised by the 
Sooloos. Its climate was not well spoken of. The 
island is larger than that of Labuan, and, as far as 
we know, has no coal. The great, and to me con- 
clusive consideration against Balambangan is, that 
it is in the very nest of pirates, and surrounded by 
warlike and hostile people ; and that to render it 
secure and effective, at least double the force would 
be necessary there that would suffice at Labuan. 
If Labuan succeeds and pays its own expenses, we 
might then take Balambangan ; for the next best 
thing to a location on the main is to influence the 
people thereon by a succession of insular establish- 



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THE UPAS-TREE, 1 69 

ments. Yesterday we made an agreeable excursion 
to the n.e point of Labuan j near the point it is 
picturesque, the cliffs are bold and cave-worn ; the 
trees hang over the cliffs, or encroach on the inter- 
mediate sands, till they kiss the wave. Near a 
small cavern we discovered a seam of coal, which 
afforded us employment whilst Captain Bethune 
and Mr. Wise walked to obtain a view of the 
southern coast of the island. 

" Bruni, 91st May, 1845. — After a longer 
time passed in Singapore than I wished, we at 
length started in the Phlegethon steamer for this 
city. At Singapore I had several interviews with 
Sir Thomas Cochrane. 

" 22d. — On the authority of Sulerman, an in- 
telligent Meri man, I am told that the tree be- 
low the town is the real upas, called by the Meri 
men tajim — the Borneons call it upas. Bina (the 
name we formerly got from a Borneon for upas) 
is, by Sulerman's statement, a thin creeper, the 
root or stem of which, being steeped in water, is 
added to the upas to increase the poisonous qua- 
lity — it is not, however, poisonous itself. There 
is another creeper likewise called bina, the leaves 
of which are steeped and mixed with the upas, 
instead of the stem of the first sort. This in- 
formation may be relied on (in the absence of 
personal knowledge); as the man is of a tribe 
which uses the sumpitan, and is constantly in the 
habit of preparing the poison. 



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170 THE ADMIRAL AT BORNEO. 

" August 8th. — Off Ujong Sapo, at the entrance 
of Borneo river. The time since I last added to 
my most desultory journal is easily accounted for. 
I have been at Singapore and Malacca, and am 
now anchored off Borneo Proper, with seven vessels, 
and an eighth is hourly expected. It is difficult 
with such a force to be moderate; and with Sir 
Thomas Gochrane's other duties and engagements, 
it is probably impossible to devote any length of 
time on this coast ; yet moderation and time are 
the key-stones of our policy. I have settled all 
the ceremonial for a meeting between the Sultan 
and the Admiral. 

" The Pangeran Budrudeen came on board 
H.M.S. Agincourt, with every circumstance of 
state and ceremony, and met the Admiral, I acting 
as interpreter. , It was pleasing to witness his de- 
meanour and bearing, which proved that in minds 
of a certain quality the power of command, though 
over savages, gives ease and freedom. The ship, 
the band, the marines, the guns, all excited Bud- 
rudeen's attention. On the 9th it is arranged 
that the Admiral shall meet the Sultan and the 
Rajah. 

"9*A. — In the course bf the day, after the 
audience had terminated, the Admiral made his 
demand of reparation on the Sultan and Muda 
Hassim for the detention and confinement of two 
British subjects subsequent to their agreement with 
the British government. Of course the Sultan and 



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PANGERAN USOP PUNISHED. 171 

the Rajah replied that they were not in fault, 
that the act was Pangeran Usop's, and that he was 
too powerful for them to control by force. If Sir 
Thomas Cochrane would punish him, they should 
he much obliged, as they desired to keep the treaty 
inviolate. 

" 10th. — Pangeran Usop had to be summoned ; 
come he would not ; and yet I was in hopes that 
when he saw the overwhelming force opposed to 
him, his pride would yield to necessity. About 
2 p.m. the steamers took up their positions ; the 
marines were landed, every thing was prepared — 
yet no symptom of obedience. At length a single 
shot was fired from the Vixen by the Admiral's 
order through the roof of Usop's house, which was 
instantly returned j thus proving the folly and the 
temper of the man. In a few minutes his house 
was tenantless, having been overwhelmed with 
shot. Usop was a fugitive j the amount of mischief 
done inconsiderable, and no damage except to the 
guilty party. Twenty captured guns the Admiral 
presented to the Sultan and the Rajah ; two he 
kept, from which to remunerate the two detained 
men. So far nothing could be more satisfac- 
tory. Usop has been punished severely, the treaty 
strictly enforced, and our supremacy maintained. 
No evil has been done except to the guilty; his 
house and his property alone have suffered ; and 
the immediate flight has prevented the shedding 
of blood. 



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172 MALLUDU BAY. 

"llth. — At mid-day the Admiral with the 
Vixen and Nemesis went down the river, leaving 
the Pluto to me to follow in next day. 

" 12th. — This morning I visited the Sultan in 
company with Muda Hassim. By twelve at night 
the Pluto was anchored in the creek at Lahuan ; 
and on the 13th I once more took up my quarters 
aboard the flag-ship. 

" 14>th Wooding. 

" 16th. — Last evening anchored within the 
point called in the chart Sampormangio, or pro- 
perly Sampang Mengayu, which, heing translated, 
signifies piratical or cruising waiting-place. The 
weather was thick and squally, and it was late 
before the Daedalus and Vestal arrived with their 
tows the Nemesis and Pluto, the former frigate 
having carried away her mizen topmast. 

"17th. — Squadron under weigh pretty early, 
getting into Malludu Bay. After breakfast had 
a very heavy squall. Agincourt heeled to it, 
and sails of various sorts and sizes were blowing 
about in ribands aboard some of the ships: after- 
wards brought up nearly off the Melow river. 

"18/A. — Vixen, Nemesis, Pluto, and boats, 
proceeded up the bay, and anchored as near as 
possible to the entrance of the Marudu, or Mal- 
ludu river. The character of Malludu Bay 
generally may be described as clear of danger, 
with high wooded banks on either side, till in 
the bight, when the land gets flat and mangrovy, 



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THE BATTLE OF MALLUDU. 173 

and the water shallow, and where the mouths of 
several small rivers are seen, one of which is 
Malludu. 

" 19th On the 19th August was fought the 

celebrated battle of Malludu ; the boats, 24 in 
number, and containing 550 marines and blue- 
jackets, having left the previous afternoon. As 
I was not present, I can say only what I heard 
from others, and from what I know from subse- 
quently viewing the position. A narrow river 
with two forts mounting 11 or 12 heavy guns (and 
defended by from 500 to 1000 fighting men), pro- 
tected by a strong and well-contrived boom, was 
the position of the enemy. Our boats took the 
bull by the horns, and indeed had little other 
choice ; cut away part of the boom under a heavy 
fire ; advanced, and carried the place in a fight 
protracted for fifty minutes. The enemy fought 
well, and stood manfully to their guns j and a 
loss of six killed, two mortally and fifteen severely 
wounded, on our side, was repaid by a very heavy 
loss of killed and wounded on theirs. Gallant 
Gibbard 1 of the Wolverine fell mortally wounded 
whilst working at the boom, axe in hand. In 

1 Leonard Gibbard made his first trip to sea under my charge 
in 1834, when I commanded the Childers in the Mediterranean, 
and at that early age gave promise of what he afterwards proved 
himself to be — a gallant officer and thorough seaman. Poor 
fellow ! he was always a general favourite wherever he went. — 
H. K. 



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174 THE TOWN DESTROYED. 

short, the engagement was severe and trying to 
our men from the fire they were exposed to. At 
two minutes to nine, aboard Vixen, we heard the 
report of the first heavy gun ; and it was a time 
of anxiety and uneasiness till the first column of 
black smoke proclaimed that the village was fired. 

" I may here mention, that before the fight 
commenced, a flag of truce came from the enemy, 
and asked for me. Captain Talbot (in command) 
offered to meet Seriff Houseman either within or 
without the boom, provided his whole force was 
with him. Seriff Houseman declined ; but of- 
fered (kind man !) to admit two gigs to be hauled 
over the boom. No sooner was this offer declined, 
and the flag returned the second time with a young 
Seriff, son of Seriff Layak of Bruni, than the 
enemy opened fire, which was promptly returned. 
Had Captain Talbot entered as proposed, I deem 
it certain he would never have quitted the place 
alive ; for the Seriff and his followers had made 
themselves up to fight, and nothing but fight. 
Many chiefs were killed ; two or three Serifls in 
their large turbans and flowing robes ; many Ula- 
nuns in their gay dresses and golden charms ; 
many Badjows ; many slaves — amongst them a 
captive Chinaman ; many were wounded ; many 
carried away ; and many left on the ground dead 
or dying. 

" 20th — On the evening of the 19th a detach- 
ment of ten boats, with fresh men and officers, 



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POOR DYAK WOMAN. 175 

quitted the Vixen, and arrived at the forts shortly 
after daylight. I accompanied this party ; and the 
work of destruction, well begun yesterday, was this 
day completed. Numerous proofs of the piracies 
of this Seriff came to light. The boom was inge- 
niously fastened with the chain-cable of a vessel of 
300 or 400 tons ; other chains were found in the 
town ; a ship's long-boat ; two ship's bells, one or- 
namented with grapes and vine-leaves, and marked 
' Wilhelm Ludwig, Bremen j* and every other de- 
scription of ship's furniture. Some half-piratical 
boats, Illanun and Balagnini, were burned j twenty- 
four or twenty-five brass guns captured ; the iron 
guns, likewise stated to have been got out of a 
ship, were spiked, and otherwise destroyed. Thus 
has Malludu ceased to exist ; and Seriff House- 
man's power received a fall from which it will 
never recover. 

" Amid this scene of war and devastation was 
one episode which moved even harder hearts than 
mine. Twenty-four hours after the action, a poor 
woman, with her child of two years of age, was 
discovered in a small canoe j her arm was shat- 
tered at the elbow by a grape-shot ; and the poor 
creature lay dying for want of water in an agony 
of pain, with her child playing around her, and 
endeavouring to derive the sustenance which the 
mother could no longer give. This poor woman 
was taken on board the Vixen, and in the evening 
her arm was amputated. To have left her would 



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176 CONCILIATION NECESSARY. 

have been certain death ; so I was strongly for the 
measure of taking her to Sarawak, where she can 
be protected. To all my inquiries she answered, 
' If you please to take me, I shall go. I am a 
woman, and not a man ; lama slave, and not a 
free woman : do as you like/ She stated too, po- 
sitively, that she herself had seen Seriff House- 
man wounded in the neck, and carried off; and 
her testimony is corroborated by two Manilla men, 
who, amongst others, ran away on the occasion, 
and sought protection from us, who likewise say 
that they saw the Seriff stretched out in the 
jungle, but they cannot say whether dead or 
wounded. The proof how great a number must 
have been killed and wounded on their part is, 
that on the following day ten dead men were 
counted lying where they fell ; amongst them was 
Seriff Mahomed, the bearer of the flag of truce, 
who, though offered our protection, fought to the 
last, and in the agonies of death threw a spear 
at his advancing foes. 

"The remnant of the enemy retired to Bun- 
gun ; and it will be some time before we learn 
their real loss and position. It is needless here 
to say any thing on the political effects to be ex- 
pected from the establishment of a government 
in Bruni, and the destruction of this worst of 
piratical communities. When I return to Bruni, 
and see how measures advance, I may mention 
the subject again ; but I will venture here to 



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BALAMBANGAN INFERIOR TO LABUAN. 177 

• 

re-urge, that mere military force, however neces- 
.sary, cannot do what it is desirable should he 
done. Supervision and conciliation must go hand 
in hand with punishment ; and we must watch 
that the snake does not again rear his head 
through our neglect. The key-stone is wanting 
as yet, and must be supplied if possible ; we 
must, to back the gallant deeds of the Admiral 
and fleet, continue to pursue a steady course of 
measures. In the evening returned to the Vixen. 

" 21st. — The morning quiet. After breakfast, 
under weigh ; proceeded off the river Bankoka, 
where we found the Cruiser at anchor. As there 
was nothing to detain us, crossed over to the 
squadron — remained an hour aboard Agincourt j 
then rejoined Sir Thomas Cochrane aboard Vixen, 
and before dinner-time were at anchor in the 
north-east harbour of Balambangan. Our woman 
prisoner doing well, and pleased with the atten- 
tion paid her. 

"23rf. — South-western harbour of Balamban- 
gan. Yesterday examined the n.e. harbour j a 
dreary -looking place, sandy and mangrovy, and 
the' harbour itself filled with coral patches ; here 
the remains of our former settlement were found 
— it is a melancholy and ineligible spot. The 
s.w. harbour is very narrow and cramped, with 
no fitting site for a town, on account of the 
rugged and unequal nature of the ground ; and 
if the town were crammed in between two emi- 

VOL. II. N 



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178 BALAMBANGAN INFERIOR TO LABUAN. 

• 

nences, it would be deprived of all free circula- 
tion of air. Water is, I hear, in sufficient quan-. 
tity, and good. On the whole, I am wretchedly 
disappointed with this island; it has one, and 
only one, recommendation, viz. that it is well 
situated in the Straits for trading and political 
purposes; in every other requisite, it is inferior 
to Labuan. Balambangan is commercially and 
politically well placed. Labuan, though inferior, 
is not greatly inferior in these points; the har- 
bour, the aspect, the soil, are superior : it may 
probably be added, that the climate is superior 
likewise ; and we must remember that those who 
had an opportunity of trying both places give the 
preference to Labuan. 

" Then, on other points, Labuan has a clear 
advantage. It commands the coal; it is in the 
vicinity of a friendly people, and settlement may 
be formed with certainty at a moderate expense, 
and with small establishments. Can this be done 
at Balambangan ? I own I doubt it ; the people 
in the vicinity we know nothing of, but we shall 
find them in all probability hostile. The Sooloos 
we are already too well acquainted with. The 
Illanuns are in the vicinity. In the case of Labuan, 
the details of the first establishment (no small 
step) can be clearly seen and arranged ; but I do 
not see my way regarding Balambangan. The 
matter is of secondary importance, but a languish- 
ing settlement at first is to be dreaded ; food will 



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DEPARTURE FROM THE AGINCOURT. 179 

be scarce, and houses difficult to build ; whilst 
at Labuan the population of Bruni are at our dis- 
posal, and the government our own. I leave others 
to judge whether a superior (but somewhat simi- 
lar) position, commercially and politically, will out- 
weigh the other disadvantages mentioned, and re- 
pay us for the extra expenses of thQ establishment ; 
but, for myself, I can give a clear verdict in favour 
of Labuan. 

"24£A. — Buried poor Mr. East, of the Agin- 
court, on Balambangan. Gibbard, poor gallant 
fellow ! was consigned to the deep a day or two 
before. 

" 25th. — A day of disaster and parting : the 
morning blowy, with an unpleasant sea. Vestal 
ran ashore on a coral-patch, but soon swung off. 
I was very sorry to part with the Agincourt. 
Farewell, gallant Agincourts! farewell, kind Ad- 
miral ! farewell the pride, pomp, and panoply of 
a flag-ship liner I My occupation's over for the 
present, and I retire with content to solitude and 
the jungle of Sarawak. I step down the huge 
side, wave a parting adieu, jump on the Cruiser's 
deck — the anchor is weighed, and away we fly. 

" 30th. — Coming down in her Majesty's ship 
Cruiser, and now off Ujong Sapo. On our. pas- 
sage we had some good views of Kina Balow, and 
from various points ; judging the distance by the 
chart, the angle of elevation gives the mountain 
not less than 12,000 feet and up to 14,000; the 



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180 FLIGHT AND PURSUIT OF 

latter result agreeing with the computation of the 
Master of the Daedalus. 

66 31st. — Started for Bruni, and half-way met 
a hoat with Pangeran Illudeen, bringing the news 
of the place. Two days after the Admiral and his 
steamers left, Pangeran Usop seized the hill be- 
hind his late house with 300 Kadiens, and com- 
menced an attack on the town. Pangeran Bud- 
rudeen on this mustered about the like number 
and mounted the hill, and by a fire of musketry 
dislodged the enemv, who retired — stood again — 
were again defeated — and finally dispersed. This 
victory raised the courage of the Brunions, and 
a counter-attack was planned, when the arrival of 
her Majesty's ship Espiegle delayed them. As 
the officers of the Espiegle and the Rajah could 
not speak a word of each other's language, the 
boat only stayed a few hours, and went away in 
ignorance of the condition of the town. After her 
departure, Budrudeen gathered about a thousand 
men of all arms, with some hundred muskets ; and 
leaving Bruni at three o'clock in the morning, 
reached the landing-place at 6 a.m., and at eight 
marched for Bariikas, where they arrived at one 
o'clock. On the way the Kadiens humbled them- 
selves, and begged their houses might be spared, 
which were spared accordingly. On reaching Ba- 
riikas, they found Pangeran Usop had been de- 
serted by the Kadiens, and was in no way expect- 
ing their coming. The few persons who remained 



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P ANGER AN USOP. 181 

fled ignominiously, Pangeran Usop shewing them 
the example ; and his women, children, gold, and 
other property, fell into the hands of his victors. 
The same evening Budrudeen and his army re- 
turned to the city in triumph ; and there can be 
no doubt these vigorous measures have not only 
settled them in power, but have likewise raised the 
spirits of their adherents, and awed the few who 
remain adverse. * Never/ the Brunions exclaim, 
' was such a war in Bruni. Pangeran Budrudeen 
fights like an European ; the very spirit of the 
Englishman is in him ; he has learned this at 
Sarawak/ Fortune favoured Usop's escape. He 
fled to the sea-shore near Pulo Badukan, and there 
met a boat of his entering from Kimanis : he took 
possession and put out to sea, and returned with 
her to that place. 

" Budrudeen we found in active preparation for 
pursuit. A dozen war-prahus were nearly ready 
for sea, and this force starts directly we depart. 

" Budrudeen's vigour has given a stimulus to 
this unwarlike people, and he has gained so great 
a character — victory sits so lightly on his plume 
— that his authority will now be obeyed ; whilst 
Usop, in consequence of his cowardly flight (for 
so they deem it), from the want of energy he has 
displayed, has lost character as well as wealth, and 
would scarce find ten men in Bruni to follow him. 
Unluckily for himself he was a great boaster in the 
days of his prosperity ; and now the contrast of his 



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182 TRIUMPHANT RECEPTION IN BORNEO, 

past boasting with his present cowardice is drawn 
with a sneer. * His mouth was brave/ they ex- 
claim; 'but his heart timid.' 'He should have 
died as other great men have died, and not have 
received such shame ; he should have amoked, 1 or 
else given himself up for execution/ This seems 
to be the general impression in the city. 

" My mind is now at rest about the fate of 
my friends ; but I still consider a man-of-war brig 
coming here every month or two as of great im- 
portance ; for it will be necessary for the next six 
months to consolidate the power of Muda Hassim 
and Budrudeen; and if, with the new order of 
things, they constantly see white faces, and find 
that they are quiet and inoffensive, the ignorant 
terror which now prevails will abate. Besides 
this, we might find the opportunity a favourable 
one for becoming acquainted with the Kadiens 
and the Marats, and giving them just impressions 
of ourselves ; for I have no doubt that on the late 
occasion the Kadiens were worked upon by all 
kinds of false reports of the pale faces taking their 
lands, burning their houses, &c. &c. &c. We 
only see the effects; we do not see (until we be- 
come very well acquainted with them) the strings 
which move the passions of these people. The 
Kadiens are, however, an unwarlike and gentle 
race, and have now given in their submission to 
Muda Hassim. I do not mention the Sultan, 
1 Anglice, run a-muck. 



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AND RETURN TO SARAWAK. 183 

because, as I before said, he is so imbecile that, as 
regards public affairs, he is a cipher : he will some 
day cease to be Sultan, and give place to a better 
man. 

" Our interview with the Kajah, with Budru- 
deen, and all the other host of our acquaintance, 
was quite a triumph — they hot with their success, 
and we bringing the account of Malludu's sangui- 
nary fight. Happy faces and wreathed smiles sup- 
plied the place of the anxious and doubtful expres- 
sion which I had left them wearing. All vied 
in their attentions j fruit enough to fill a room — 
the luscious durian, the delicate mangosteen and 
lousch, the grateful rombusteen, the baluna, pi- 
tabu, mowha, plantain, &c. &c. were showered 
upon us from all quarters. The Rajah daily sent 
a dinner ; all was rejoicing, and few or no clouds 
lowered in the distance. I was proud and happy ; 
for I felt and feel that much of this has been 
owing to my exertions. I will not stop to say 
how or why ; but I first taught them to respect 
and to confide in Englishmen, and no one else 
has yet untaught them this lesson. 

"September 3d. — After parting interviews we 
quitted the city at two, and arrived aboard her 
Majesty's ship Cruiser at eight p.m. To-morrow 
morning we sail for Sarawak, where, at any rate, 
I hope for rest for a month or two. 

" IQtk. — Sarawak. Thus concludes a large 
volume. Captain Bethune and myself, with Corn- 



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184 DYAK SUPERSTITIONS. 

manHer Fanshawe and a party of Cruisers, re- 
turned from a five days' excursion amongst the 
Dyaks, having visited the Suntah, Stang, Sigo, 
and Sanpro tribes. It was a progress ; at each 
tribe there was dancing, and a number of cere- 
monies. White fowls were waved as I have before 
described, slaughtered, and the blood mixed with 
kuny-it, a yellow root, &c. &c, which delightful 
mixture was freely scattered over them and their 
goods by me, holding in my hand a dozen or two 
women's necklaces. Captain Bethune has seen and 
can appreciate the Dyaks : to-morrow he leaves 
me, and most sorry shall I be to lose him. A 
better man or a better public servant is not to be 
found. 

"Amongst my Dyak inquiries, I found out 
that the name of their god is Tuppa, and not 
Jovata, which they before gave me, and which they 
use, but do not acknowledge. Tuppa is the great 
god ; eight other gods were in heaven ; one fell or 
descended into Java, — seven remained above; one 
ef these is named Sakarra, who, with his compa- 
nions and followers, is (or is in) the constellation 
of a cluster of stars, doubtless the Pleiades ; and 
by the position of this constellation the Dyaks can 
judge good and bad fortune. If this cluster of 
stars be high in the heavens, success will attend 
the Dyak ; when it sinks below the horizon, ill 
luck follows.; fruit and crops will not ripen; war 
and famine are dreaded. Probably originally this 



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OPINION OF CAPTAIN BETHUNE. 185 

was but a simple and natural division of the sea- 
sons, which has now become a gross superstition. 

" The progress is ended ; to-morrow I shall be 
left in the solitude and the quiet of the jungle : 
but, after witnessing the happiness, the plenty, 
the growing prosperity of the Dyak tribes, I can 
scarcely believe that I could devote my life to 
better purpose ; and I dread that a removal might 
destroy what I have already done. 

"We must now wait the decision of govern- 
ment with patience. Captain Bethune, in making 
his report, will have the advantage of real substan- 
tial personal knowledge. I esteem him highly ; and 
regard him as a man of the most upright prin- 
ciples, who is not and will not be swayed in his 
duty by any considerations whatever. I am glad 
we are to stand the ordeal of such a man's in- 
quiry." 



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CHAPTEE IX. 

Borneo, its geographical bounds and leading divisions. British 
settlements in 1775. The province of Sarawak formally 
ceded by the Sultan in perpetuity to Mr. Brooke its present 
ruler. General view of the Dyaks, the aborigines of Borneo. 
The Dyaks of Sarawak, and adjoining tribes ; their past op- 
pression and present position. 

I will now endeavour to make the reader better 
acquainted with the nature of a country and people 
so imperfectly known, by offering that general view 
of its past events and present condition which will 
make the information respecting them more intel- 
ligible, as well as applicable to new circumstances 
and future measures. 

By looking at the map, it will be seen that the 
island of Borneo extends over 11 degrees of lati- 
tude and as many of longitude, from 4° n. to 7° s., 
and 108° to 119° e. The n.w. coast is but thinly 
populated ; and the natives who inhabit the banks 
of some of the beautiful rivers differ, as has been 
already stated, from each other in manners and cus- 
toms, and have but little communication among 
themselves. The s., e., and n.e. coasts of Borneo 



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BORNEO. 187 

are also but thinly inhabited, and very little 
known. There are various divisions of Malays, 
as well as different tribes of Dyaks, who live in 
an unsettled state, and occasionally make war on 
one another : their principal occupation, however, 
is piracy. The north part of the island was once 
in the possession of the East India Company, 
who had a settlement and factory on the island of 
Balambangan, which was attacked in 177^, when 
in a weak and unguarded state, by a powerful pi- 
ratical tribe of Sooloos, who surprised the fort, put 
the sentries to death, and turned the guns on the 
troops, who were chiefly Buguese (or Bugis) Malays. 
Those who escaped got on board the vessels in the 
harbour, and reached the island of Labuan, near 
the mouth of the Borneo river ; whilst the booty 
obtained by the pirates was estimated at 375,000/. 
From that time to this these atrocious pirates have 
never been punished, and still continue their de- 
predations. 

The remainder of the coast on the n.w. is now 
called Borneo Proper, to distinguish it from the 
name that custom has given to the whole island, 
the original name of which was Kalamantan, and 
Bruni that of the town now called Borneo. The 
latter was probably the first part of the coast ever 
visited by Europeans, who consequently extended 
the appellation to the island itself. The town of 
Borneo, situated on the river of that name, was, 
until the last few years, a port of some wealth, and 



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188 PROVINCE OF SARAWAK. 

carrying on an extensive trade, which has been 
ruined entirely by the rapacity of the Malay chiefs, 
who have now but little control over that part of 
Borneo Proper which lies to the northward of the 
river. The province of Sarawak is situated at the 
s.w. end of Borneo Proper, and was formally ceded 
in perpetuity by the Sultan in 1843 to Mr. Brooke, 
who, indeed, had possessed the almost entire man- 
agement of the district for the two previous years. 
"It extends from Tanjong Datu (I quote from 
Mr. Brooke's description of his territory) to the 
entrance of the Samarahan river, a distance along 
the coast of about sixty miles in an e.s.e. direc- 
tion, with an average breadth of fifty miles. It is 
bounded to the westward by the Sambas territory, 
to the southward by a range of mountains which 
separate it from the Pontiana river, and to the 
eastward by the Borneon territory of Sadong. 
Within this space there are several rivers and 
islands, which it is needless here to describe at 
length, as the account of the river of Sarawak will 
answer alike for the rest. There are two navi- 
gable entrances to this river, and numerous smaller 
branches for boats, both to the westward and east- 
ward; the two principal entrances combine at 
about twelve miles from the sea, and the river 
flows for twenty miles into the interior in a south- 
erly and westerly direction, when it again forms 
two branches — one running to the right, the other 
to the left hand, as far as the mountain range. 



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PROVINCE OF SARAWAK. 189 

Besides these facilities for water- communication, 
there exist three other branches from the eastern- 
most entrance, called Morotaba, one of which joins 
the Samarahan river, and the two others flow from 
different points of the mountain range already 
mentioned. The country is diversified by detached 
mountains, and the mountain range has an eleva- 
tion of about three thousand feet. The aspect of 
the country may be generally described as low and 
woody at the entrance of the rivers, except a few 
high mountains \ but in the interior undulating in 
parts, and part presenting fine level plains. The 
climate may be pronounced healthy and cool, 
though for the six months from September to 
March a great quantity of rain falls. During my 
three visits to this place, which have been pro- 
longed to eight months, and since residing here, 
we have been clear of sickness, and during the 
entire period not one of three deaths could be 
attributed to the effects of climate. The more 
serious maladies of tropical climates are very in- 
frequent ; from fever and dysentery we have been 
quite free, and the only complaints have been 
rheumatism, colds, and ague ; the latter, however, 
attacked us in the interior, and no one has yet 
had it at Sarawak, which is situated about twenty- 
five miles from the mouth of the river. 

" The soil and productions of this country are 
of the richest description ; and it is not too much 
to say, that, within the same given space, there are 



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190 VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 

not to be found the same mineral and vegetable 
riches in any land in the world. I propose to give 
a brief detail of them, beginning with the soil of 
the plains, which is moist and rich, and calculated 
for the growth of rice, for which purpose it was 
formerly cleared and used, until the distractions of 
the country commenced. From the known indus- 
try of the Dyaks, and their partiality to rice-cul- 
tivation, there can be little doubt that it would 
become an article of extensive export, provided 
security were given to the cultivator and a proper 
remuneration for his produce. The lower grounds, 
besides rice, are well adapted for the growth of 
sago, and produce canes, rattans, and forest-tim- 
ber of the finest description for ship -building 
and other useful purposes. P The Chinese export 
considerable quantities of timber from Sambas and 
Fontiana, particularly of the kind called Balean 
by the natives, or the lion-wood of the EuropeansjJ! 
and at this place it is to be had in far greater 
quantity and nearer the place of sale. The undu- 
lating ground differs in soil, some portions of it 
being a yellowish clay, whilst the rest is a rich 
mould ; these grounds, generally speaking, as well 
as the slopes of the higher mountains, are admir- 
ably calculated for the growth of nutmegs, coffee, 
pepper, or any of the more valuable vegetable pro- 
ductions of the tropics. Besides the above-men- 
tioned articles, there are birds-nests, bees-wax, 
and several kinds of scented wood, in demand at 



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v MINERAL RICHES. 191 



**, 



^.gapore, which are all collected by the Dyaks, 
and would be gathered in far greater quantity pro- 
vided the Dyak was allowed to sell them. 

" Turning from the vegetable to the mineral 
riches of the country, we have diamonds, gold, tin, 
iron, and antimony-ore certain ; I have lately sent 
what I believe to be a specimen of lead-ore to Cal- 
cutta ; and copper is reported. It must be remem- 
bered, in reading this list, that the country is as 
yet unexplored by a scientific person, and that the 
inquiries of a geologist and a mineralogist would 
throw further light on the minerals of the moun- 
tains, and the spots where they are to be found in 
the greatest plenty. The diamonds are stated to 
be found in considerable numbers, and of a good 
water ; and I judge the statement to be correct 
from the fact that the diamond- workers from San- 
dak come here and work secretly, and the people 
from Banjarmasim, who are likewise clever at this 
trade, are most desirous to be allowed to work for 
the precious stone. Gold of a good quality cer- 
tainly is to be found in large quantities. The 
eagerness and perseverance of the Chinese to es- 
tablish themselves is a convincing proof of the 
fact ; and ten years since a body of about 3000 
of them had great success in procuring gold by 
their ordinary mode of trenching the ground. 

" The quantity of gold yearly procured at Sam- 
bas is moderately stated at 130,000 bunkals, 
which, reckoned at the low rate of 20 Spanish 



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.M; 



192 ANTIMONY. 

dollars a bunkal, gives 2,600,000 Spanish dollars, 
or upwards of half a million sterling. The most 
intelligent Chinese are of opinion, that the quan- 
tity here exceeds that at Sambas ; and there is 
no good reason to suppose it would fall short of it, 
were once a sufficient Chinese popidation settled 
in the country. 

"Antimony-ore is a staple commodity, which 
is to be procured in any quantity. /Tin is said 
/ to be plentiful, and the Chinese propose working 
Viti but I have had no opportunity of visiting the 
spot where it is found. Copper, though reported, 
has not been brought; and the iron-ore I have 
examined is of inferior quality. The specimen of 
what I supposed to be lead-ore has been forwarded 
to Calcutta, and it remains to be seen what its 
value may be. And besides the above-mentioned 
minerals, there can be little doubt of many others 
being discovered, if the mountain range was pro- 
perly explored by any man of science. Many 
other articles of minor importance might be men- 
tioned; but it is needless to add to a list which 
contains articles of such value, and which would 
prove the country equal in vegetable and mineral 
productions to any in the world. 

" From the productions (continues Mr. Brooke) 
I turn to the inhabitants ; and I feel sure that in 
describing their sufferings and miseries I shall 
command the interest and sympathy of every 
person of humanity, and that the claims of the 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 193 

virtuous and most unhappy Dyaks will meet with 
the same attention as those of the African. And 
these claims hav0 the advantage, that much good 
may he done without the vast expenditure of lives 
and money which the exertions on the African 
coast yearly demand, and that the people would 
readily appreciate the good that was conferred upon 
them, and rapidly rise in the scale of civilisation." 

The inhabitants may be divided into three dif- 
ferent classes, viz. the Malays, the Chinese, and 
the Dyaks ; of the two former little need be said, 
as they are so well known. 

The Dyaks (or more properly Dyak) of Bor- 
neo offer to our view a primitive state of society; 
and their near resemblance to the Tarajahs of 
Celebes, 1 to the inland people of Sumatra, and 
probably to the Arafuras of Papua, 2 in customs, 
manners, and language, affords reason for the 
conclusion that these are the aboriginal race of 
the Eastern Archipelago, nearly stationary in their 
original condition. Whilst successive waves of 
civilisation have swept onward the rest of the 

1 See Prichard's Researches, 1826, which, meagre as they 
must have been from the want of data, tell us in two or three 
pages nearly all we know on the subject. That able investi- 
gator states that the Dyaks of Borneo resemble the Taraj of 
Celebes. 

2 With regard to the Arafuras, or Haraforas, it is stated that 
they are termed in some districts Idaan, in others Murut, and in 
others Dayaks. See Raffles' Java.. And Leyden assures us that 
all these varieties were originally called Idaan. 

VOL, II. O 



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194 THE DYAK TRIBES. 

inhabitants, whilst tribes as wild have arisen to 
power, flourished, and decayed, the Dyak in his 
native jungles still retains the feelings of earlier 
times, and shews the features of society as it ex- 
isted before the influx of foreign races either im- 
proved or corrupted the native character. 

The name 'Dyak* has been indiscriminately 
applied to all the wild people on the island of 
Borneo; but as the term is never so used by 
themselves, and as they differ greatly, not only in 
name, but in their customs and manners, we will 
briefly, in the first instance, mention the various 
distinct nations, the general locality of each, and 
some of their distinguishing peculiarities. 

1st. The Dusun, or villagers of the northern 
extremity of the island, are a race of which Mr. 
Brooke knows nothing personally ; but the name 
implies that they are an agricultural people : they 
are represented as not being tattooed, as using 
the sumpitan, and as having a peculiar dialect. 1 

2d. The Murut. They inhabit the interior of 
Borneo rroper. They are not tattooed, always use 
the sumpitan, and have a peculiar dialect. In the 
same locality, and resembling the Murut, are some 
tribes called the Basaya. 

3d. The Kadians (or Idaans of voyagers) use 

1 A singular contrast to preceding accounts, which represent 
the north and north-eastern population not only as pirates, called 
Tiran or Zedong, but even as cannibals. Near them there ap- 
pear to be the piratical nests of Magindano, Sooloo, &c. 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 195 

the sumpitan, and have likewise a peculiar dia- 
lect; but in other respects they nowise differ 
from the Borneons, either in religion, dress, or 
mode of life. They are, however, an industrious, 
peaceful people, who cultivate the ground in the 
vicinity of Borneo Proper, and nearly as far as 
Tanjong Barram. The wretched capital is greatly 
dependent upon them, and, from their numbers 
and industry, they form a valuable population. 
In the interior, and on the Balyet river, which 
discharges itself near Tanjong Barram, is a race 
likewise called Radian, not converted to Islam, 
and which still retains the practice of "taking 
heads." 

4th. The Eayan. The Eayans are the most 
numerous, the most powerful, and the most war- 
like people in Borneo. They are an inland 
race, and their locality extends from about sixty 
miles up the country from Tanjong Barram to 
the same extent farther into the interior, in la- 
titude 3° S(f n., and thence across the island to 
probably a similar distance from the eastern shore. 
Their customs, manners, and dress are peculiar, 
and present most of the characteristic features of 
a wild and independent people. The Malays of 
the n.w. coast fear the Kayans, and rarely enter 
their country ; but the Millanows are familiar with 
them, and there have thence been obtained many 
particulars respecting them. They are repre- 
sented as extremely hospitable, generous and kind 



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196 THE DYAK TRIBES, 

to strangers, strictly faithful to their word, and 
honest in their dealings ; but on the other hand, 
they are fierce and bloodthirsty, and when on an 
expedition, slaughter without sparing. The Kayans 
are partially tattooed, use the sumpitan, have many 
dialects, and are remarkable for the strange and 
apparently mutilating custom adopted by the males, 
and mentioned by Sir Stamford Raffles. 

5th. To the southward and westward of Bar- 
ram ar§ the Millanows, 1 who inhabit the rivers 
not far from the sea. They are, generally speak- 
ing, an intelligent, industrious, and active race, 
the principal cultivators of sago, and gatherers 
of the famous camphor barus. Their locality 
extends from Tanjong Barram to Tanjong Sirak. 
In person they are stout and well made, of mid- 
dling height, round good-tempered countenances, 
and fairer than the Malays. They have several 
dialects amongst them, use the sumpitan, and 
are not tattooed. They retain the practice of 
taking heads, but they seldom seek them, and 
have little of the ferocity of the Eayan. 

6th. In the vicinity of the Kayans and Mil- 
lanows are some wild tribes, called the Tatows, 
Balanian, Eanowit, &c. They are probably only 

1 There are several rivers,Meri, Bentulu, &c, the inhabit- 
ants of which, says Mr. Brooke, I class under the general term 
Millanow, as their dialects shew a very close connexion, and their 
habits are the same. Evidently from language they are civilised 
tribes of Kayans. 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 197 

a branch of Kayans, though differing from them 
in being elaborately tattooed over the entire body. 
They have peculiar dialects, use the sumpitan, 
and are a wild and fierce people. 

7th. The Dyak. They are divided into Dyak 
Darrat and Dyak Laut, or land and sea Dyaks. 
The Dyak Lauts, as their name implies, frequent 
the sea ; and it is needless to say much of them, 
as their difference from the Dyak Darrat is a 
difference of circumstances only. The tribes of 
Sarebus and Sakarran, whose rivers are situated 
in the deep bay between Tanjong Sipang and 
Tanjorig Sirak, are powerful communities, and 
dreadful pirates, who ravage the coast in large 
fleets, and murder and rob indiscriminately ; but 
this is by no means to be esteemed a standard 
of Dyak character. In these expeditions the 
Malays often join them, and they are likewise 
made the instruments for oppressing the Laut 
tribes. The Sarebus and Sakarran are fine men, 
fairer than the Malays, with sharp keen eyes, 
thin lips, and handsome countenances, though 
frequently marked by an expression of cunning. 
The Balows and Sibnowans are amiable tribes, 
decidedly warlike, but not predatory ; and the 
latter combines the virtues of the Dyak cha- 
racter with much of the civilisation of the Ma- 
lays. The Dyak Laut dp not tattoo, nor do 
they use the sumpitan ; their language assimi- 
lates closely to the Malay, and was doubtless 



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198 THE DYAK TRIBES. 

originally identical with that of the inland tribes. 
The name of God amongst them is Battara (the 
Avatara of the Hindoos). They hury their dead, 
and in the graves deposit a large portion of the 
property of the deceased, often to a considerable 
value in gold ornaments, brass guns, jars, and 
arms. Their marriage-ceremony consists in two 
fowls being killed, and the forehead and breast 
of the young couple being touched with the 
blood ; after which the chief, or an old man, 
knocks their heads together several times, and 
the ceremony is completed with mirth and feast- 
ing. In these two instances they differ from the 
Dyak Darrat. 

It must be observed that the Dyak also dif- 
fers from the Kayan in not being tattooed; and 
from the Kayan Millanows, &c„ in not using 
the national weapon— the sumpitan. The Kayan 
and the Dyak, as general distinctions, though 
they differ in dialect, in dress, in weapons, and 
probably in religion, agree in their belief of 
similar omens, and, above all, in their practice 
of taking the heads of their enemies ; but with 
the Kayan this practice assumes the aspect of an 
indiscriminate desire of slaughter, whilst with the 
Dyak it is but the trophy acquired in legitimate 
warfare. The Kadians form the only exception 
to this rule, in consequence of their conversion to 
Islam; and it is but reasonable to suppose, that 
with a slight exertion in favour of Christianity, 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 199 

others might be induced to lay aside this barbar- 
ous custom. 

With respect to the dialects, though the dif- 
ference is considerable, they are evidently derived 
from a common source ; but it is remarkable 
that some words in the Millanow and Eayan are 
similar to the Bugis and Badjow language. This 
intermixture of dialects, which can be linked to- 
gether, appears to be more conclusive of the com- 
mon origin of the wild tribes and civilised nations 
of the Archipelago than most other arguments ; 
and if Marsden's position be correct (which there 
can be little or no reason to doubt), that the 
Polynesian is an original race with an original 
language, 1 it must likewise be conceded that the 
wild tribes represent the primitive state of society 
in these islands. 

We know little of the wild tribes of Celebes 
beyond their general resemblance to the Eayans 
of the east coast of Borneo ; and it is probable 
that the Eayans are the people of Celebes, who, 
crossing the Strait of Makassar, have in time by 
their superior prowess possessed themselves of the 
country of the Dyaks. Mr. Brooke (from whom 
I am copying this sketch) is led to entertain this 
opinion from a slight resemblance in their dialects 
to those used in Celebes, from the difference 

1 Leyden concluded that the language was allied to the Batta 
and Tagala, and the whole derived from, and varieties of, the 
primitive tongue of the Philippine Islands. 



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200 THE DYAK TRIBES. 

in so many of their customs from those of the 
Dyaks, and from the Kayans of the north-west 
coast of Borneo having one custom in common 
with the wild tribe of Minkoka in the Bay of 
Boni. Both the Kayans and Minkokas on the 
death of a relative seek for a head ; and on the 
death of their chief many human heads must be 
procured: which practice is unknown to the 
Dyak. It may further be remarked, that their 
probable immigration from Celebes is supported 
by the statement of the Millanows, that the 
Murut and Dyak give place to the Kayan when^ 
ever they come in contact, and that the latter 
people have depopulated large tracts in the in* 
terior, which were once occupied by the former. 

Having thus briefly noticed the different wild 
people of the island, I proceed with the more par- 
ticular task of describing the Dyak Darrats. 

The locality of these Dyaks may be marked as 
follows: — The Fontiana river* from its mouth, is 
traced into the interior towards the northward and 
westward, until it approaches at the furthest within 
100 miles of the north-west coast ; a line drawn 
in latitude 8° n. till it intersects the course of the 
Fontiana river will point out the limit of the coun- 
try inhabited by the Dyak. Within this inconsi- 
derable portion of the island, which includes Sam-, 
bas, Landak, Fontiana, Sangow, Sarawak, &c, are 
numerous tribes, all of which agree in their leading 
customs, and make use of nearly the same dialect. 



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THE DTAK TRIBES. 201 

Personally (writes our sole authority for any intel- 
ligence respecting them), I am acquainted only 
with the tribes of Sarawak and some tribes fur* 
ther in the interior beyond the government of the 
Malays, who inhabit the country between Sarawak 
and Landak ; and the description of one tribe will 
serve as a description of all, so little do they vary. 

Before, however, I say any thing of the cha- 
racter of the Dyaks, or their temper, it will be 
necessary to describe briefly the government under 
which they live, and the influence it has upon 
them ; and if afterwards in the recital there ap- 
pear some unamiable points in their character, an 
allowance will be made for their failings, which 
those who rule them would not deserve. 

Th$ Dyaks have from time immemorial been 
looked upon as the bondsmen of the Malays, and 
the Rajahs consider them much in the same light 
as they would a drove of oxen — i. e. as personal 
and disposable property* They were governed in 
Sarawak by three local officers, called the Patingi, 
the Bandar, and the Tumangong. To the Patingi 
they paid a small yearly revenue of rice, but this 
deficiency of revenue was made up by sending them 
a quantity of goods — chiefly salt, Dyak cloths, and 
iron — and demanding a price for them six or 
eight times more than their value. The produce 
collected by the Dyaks was also monopolised, and 
the edible birds-nests, bees-wax, &c. &c, were 
taken at a price fixed by the Patingi, who more- 



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202 THE DYAK TRIBES. 

over claimed mats, fowls, fruits, and every other 
necessary at his pleasure, and could likewise make 
the Dyaks work for him for merely a nominal 
remuneration. This system, not badly devised, 
had it been limited within the bounds of mode- 
ration, would have left the Dyaks plenty for all 
their wants j or had the local officers known their 
own interest, they would have protected those upon 
whom they depended for revenue, and under the 
worst oppression of one man the Dyaks would have 
deemed themselves happy. Such unfortunately was 
not the case j for the love of immediate gain over- 
came every other consideration, and by degrees old- 
established customs were thrown aside, and new 
ones substituted in their place. When the Fatingi 
had received all he thought proper to extort, his 
relatives first claimed the right of arbitrary trade, 
and gradually it was extended as the privilege of 
every respectable person in the country to serra 1 
the Dyaks. The poor Dyak, thus at the mercy of 
half the Malay population, was never allowed to 
refuse compliance with these demands ; he could 
plead neither poverty, inability, nor even hunger, 
as an excuse, for the answer was ever ready: 
" Give me your wife or one of your children ;" and 
in case he could not supply what was required, 
the wife or the child was taken, and became a 
slave. Many modes of extortion were resorted to ; 

1 Probably a Dyak phrase for levying exactions on the op- 
pressed people. It is not Malay. 



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THE DYAK TM3BS, 203 

a favourite one was convicting the Dyak of a fault 
and imposing a fine upon him, Some ingenuity 
and much trickery were shewn in this game, and 
new offences were invented as soon as the old pleas 
would serve no longer : for instance, if a Malay 
met a Dyak in a boat which pleased him, he 
notched it, as a token that it was his property ; in 
one day, if the boat was a new one, perhaps three 
or more would place their marks on it; and as 
only one could get it, the Dyak to whom the boat 
really belonged had to pay the others for his fault. 
This, however, was only " a fault j" whereas, for 
a Dyak to injure a Malay, directly or indirectly, 
purposely or otherwise, was a high offence, and 
punished by a proportionate fine. If a Dyak's 
house was in bad repair, and a Malay fell in con- 
sequence and was hurt, or pretended to be hurt, 
a fine was imposed ; if a Malay in the jungle was 
wounded by the springs set for a wild boar, or by 
the wooden spikes which the Dyaks for protection 
put about their village, or scratched himself and 
said he was injured, the penalty was heavy j if the 
Malay was really hurt, ever so accidentally, it was 
the ruin of the Dyak. And these numerous and 
uninvited guests came and went at pleasure, lived 
in free quarters, made their requisitions, and then 
forced the Dyak to carry away for them the very 
property of which he had been robbed. 

This is a fair picture of the governments un- 
der which the Dyaks live ; and although they were 



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204 THE DYAK TRIBES* 

often roused to resistance, it was always fruitless, 
and only involved them in deeper troubles ; for the 
Malays could readily gather a large force of sea 
Dyaks from Sakarran, who were readily attracted 
by hope of plunder, and who, supported by the 
fire-arms of their allies, were certain to overcome 
any single tribe that held out. The misfortunes of 
the Dyaks of Sarawak did not stop here. Anti- 
mony-ore was discovered ; the cupidity of the Bor- 
neons was roused ; then Fangerans struggled for 
the prize ; intrigues and dissensions ensued ; and 
the inhabitants of Sarawak in turn felt the very 
evil they had inflicted on the Dyaks ; whilst the 
Dyaks were compelled, amidst their other wrongs, 
to labour at the ore without any recompense, and 
to the neglect of their rice r cultivation. Many died 
in consequence of this compulsory labour, so con- 
trary to their habits and inclinations; and more 
would doubtless have fallen victims, had not civil 
war rescued them from this evil, to inflict upon 
them others a thousand times worse* 

Extortion had before been carried on by indi- 
viduals, but now it was systematised ; and Fanger- 
ans of rank, for the sake of plunder, sent bodies of 
Malays and Sakarran Dyaks to attack the different 
tribes. The men were slaughtered, the women 
and children carried off into slavery, the villages 
burned, the fruit-trees cut down, 1 and all their 
property destroyed or seized. 

1 The utter destruction of a village or town is nothing to the 



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THE DYAK TRIBES, 205 

The Dyaks could no longer live in tribes, but 
sought refuge in the mountains or the jungle, a 
few together; and as one of them pathetically 
described it — "We do not live," he said, "like 
men ; we are like monkeys ; we are hunted from 
place to pAace ; we have no houses ; and when 
we light a fire,, we fear the smoke will draw, our 
enemies upon us" 

In the course of ten years, under the circum- 
stances detailed, -r- from enforced labour, from 
famine, from slavery, from sickness, from the 
sword, — one half of the Dyak population 1 disap- 

infliction of cutting down the fruit-trees. The former can be 
rebuilt, with its rude and ready materials, in a few weeks ; but 
the latter, from which the principal subsistence of the natives is 
gathered, cannot be suddenly restored, and thus they are reduced 
to starvation. 

1 The grounds for this opinion are an estimate personally 
made amongst the tribes, compared with the estimate kept by 
the local officers before the disturbance arose ; and the result is, 
that only two out of twenty tribes have not suffered, whilst some 
tribes have been reduced from 330 families to 50; about ten 
tribes have lost more than half their number ; one tribe of 100 
families has lost all, its women and children made slaves ; and 
one tribe, more wretched, has been reduced from 120 families to 
2, that is 16 persons ; whilst two tribes have entirely disappeared. 
The list of the tribes and their numbers formerly and now are as 
follows :— Suntah, 330—50; Sanpro, 100—69; Sigo, 80—28; 
Sabungo, 60 — 33; Brang, 50—22; Sinnar, 80—34; Stang, 
80—30; Samban, 60—34; Tubbia, 80—30; Goon, ,40— 25; 
Bang, 40— 12; Kuj-juss, 35—0; Lundu, 80—2; Sow, 200— 
100; Sarambo, 100—60; Bombak, 35—35; Paninjow, 80—40; 
Singe, 220—220 ; Pons, 20—0; Sibaduh, 25—25. Total, for- 



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206 THE DYAK TRIBES. 

peered ; and the work of extirpation would have 
gone cm at an accelerated pace, had the remnant 
been left to the tender mercies of the Pangerans ; 
but chance (we may much more truly say, Pro- 
vidence) led our countryman Mr. Brooke to this 
scene of misery, and enabled him, by circum- 
stances far removed beyond the grounds of calcu- 
lation, to put a stop to the sufferings of an ami- 
able people. 

There are twenty tribes in Sarawak, on about 
fifty square miles of land. The appearance of the 
Dyaks is prepossessing : they have good-natured 
faces, with a mild and subdued expression; eyes 
set far apart, and features sometimes well formed. 
In person they are active, of middling height, and 
not distinguishable from the Malays in complexion. 
The women are neither so good-looking nor well- 
formed as the men, but they have the same ex- 
pression, and are cheerful and kind-tempered* 
The dress of the men consists of a piece of cloth 
about -fifteen feet long, passed between the legs 
and fastened round the loins, with the ends hang- 
ing before and behind ; the head-dress is composed 
of bark-cloth, dyed bright yellow, and stuck up in 
front so as to resemble a tuft of feathers. The 
arms and legs are often ornamented with rings 

merly, 1795 — now, 849 families; and reckoning eight persons 
to each family, the amount of population will be, formerly, 
14,360 — now, 6792 : giving a decrease of population in ten years 
of S46 families, or 7568 persons I 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 207 

of silver, brass, or shell ; and necklaces are worn, 
made of human teeth, or those of bears or dogs, 
or of white, beads, in such numerous Strings as to 
conceal the throat. A sword on one side, a knife 
and small betel-basket on the other, complete the 
ordinary equipment of the males ; but when they 
travel they carry a basket slung from the fore- 
head, on which is a palm mat, to protect the owner 
and his property from the weather. The women 
wear a short and scanty petticoat, reaching from 
the loins to the knees, and a pair of black bamboo 
stays, which are never removed except the wearer 
be enceinte. They have rings of brass or red 
bamboo about the loins, and sometimes ornaments 
on the arms ; the hair is worn long ; the ears of 
both sexes are pierced, and ear-rings of brass in- 
serted occasionally; the teeth of the young people 
are sometimes filed to a point and discoloured, as 
they say that "Dogs have white teeth." They 
frequently dye their feet and hands of a bright 
red or yellow colour ; and the young people, like 
those of other countries, affect a degree of finery 
and foppishness ; whilst the elders invariably lay 
aside all ornaments, as unfit for a wise person or 
one- advanced in years. 

In character the Dyak is mild and tractable, 
hospitable when he is well used, grateful for 
kindness, industrious, honest, and simple; neither 
treacherous nor cunning, and so truthful that the 
word of one of them might safely be taken be- 



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208 THE DYAK TRIBES. 

fore the oath of half-a-dozen Borneons. In their 
dealings they are very straightforward and correct, 
and so trustworthy that they rarely attempt, even 
after a lapse of years, to evade payment of a 
just debtr On the reverse of this picture there is 
little unfavourable to be said ; and the wonder is, 
they have learned so little deceit or falsehood where 
the examples before them have been so rife. The 
temper of the Dyak inclines to be sullen j and 
they oppose a dogged and stupid obstinacy when 
set to a task which displeases them, and support 
with immovable apathy torrents of abuse or en- 
treaty. They are likewise distrustful, fickle, apt 
to be led away, and evasive in concealing the 
amount of their property ; but these are the vices 
rather of situation than of character, for they have 
been taught by bitter experience that their rulers 
set no limits to their exactions, and that hiding 
is their only chance of retaining a portion of the 
grain they have raised. They are, at the same 
time, fully aware of the customs by which their 
ancestors were governed, and are constantly ap- 
pealing to them as a rule of right, and frequently 
arguing with the Malay on the subject. Upon 
these occasions they are silenced, but not con- 
vinced ; and the Malay, whilst he evades, or bullies 
when it is needful, is sure to appeal to these very 
much-abused customs whenever it serves his pur- 
pose. The manners of the Dyaks with strangers 
are reserved to an extent rarely seen amongst rude 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 209 

or half-civilised people ; but on a better acquaint- 
ance (which is not readily acquired), they are open 
and talkative, and, when heated with their fa- 
vourite beverage, lively, and evincing more shrewd- 
ness and observation than they have gained credit 
for possessing. Their ideas, as may well be sup- 
posed, are very limited; they reckon with their 
fingers and toes, and few are clever enough to 
count beyond twenty; but when they repeat the 
operation, they record each twenty by making a 
knot on a string. 

Like other wild people, the slightest restraint 
is irksome, and no temptation will induce them 
to stay long from their favourite jungle. It is 
there they seek the excitement of war, the plea- 
sures of the chase, the labours of the field, and 
the abundance of fruit in the rich produce which 
assists in supporting their families. The pathless 
jungle is endeared to them by every association 
which influences the human mind, and they lan- 
guish when prevented from roaming there as in- 
clination dictates. 

With reference to the gradual advance of the 
Dyaks, Mr. Brooke observes in an early part of 
his journal: — "The peaceful and gentle abori- 
gines — how can I speak too favourably of their 
improved condition? These people, who, a few 
years since, suffered every extreme of misery from 
war, slavery, and starvation, are now comfortably 
lodged/ arid comparatively rich, A stranger might 

VOL. II. p 



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210 THE DYAR TRIBES. 

now pass from village to village, and he would re- 
ceive their hospitality, and see their padi stored 
in their houses. He would hear them proclaim 
their happiness, and praise the white man as their 
friend and protector. Since the death of Parem- 
ham, no Dyak of Sarawak lost his life by violence, 
until a month since, when two were cut off by the 
Sakarran Dyaks. None of the tribes have warred 
amongst themselves ; and I believe their war ex- 
cursions, to a distance in the interior have been 
very few, and those undertaken by the Sarambos. 
What punishment is sufficient for the wretch who 
finds this state of things so baleful as to attempt 
to destroy it ? Yet such a wretch is Seriff Sahib. 
In describing the condition of the Dyaks, I do not 
say that it is perfect, or that it may not be still 
further improved; but with people in their state 
of society innovations ought not rashly or hastily 
to be made ; as the civilised being ought con- 
stantly to bear in mind, that what is clear to him 
is not clear to a savage; that intended benefits 
may be regarded as positive injuries ; and that his 
motives are not, and scarcely can be, appreciated. 
The greatest evil, perhaps, from which the Dyaks 
suffer, is the influence of the Datus or chiefs ; but 
this influence is never carried to oppression, and 
is only used to obtain the expensive luxury of 
birds-nests at a cheap rate. In short, the Dyaks 
are happy and content ; and their gradual develop- 
ment must now be left to the work of time, aided 



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THE DYAK TRIBES. 211 

by the gentlest persuasion, and advanced (if attain- 
able) by the education of their children." 

The latest accounts from Sarawak describe 
the increasing prosperity of that interesting settle- 
ment. Among other recent intelligence, I have 
heard from Mr. Brooke that Seriff Sahib died of 
a broken heart, shortly after his arrival at the Pon- 
tiana river. 



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CHAPTER X. 

Proposed British settlement on the north-west coast of Borneo, 
and occupation of the island of Labuan. Governor Crawford's 
opinions thereon. 

The establishment of a British settlement on the 
north-west coast of Borneo, and the occupation 
of the island of Labuan, are measures that have 
for some time past been under consideration by 
her Majesty's government; and I am courteously 
enabled to lay before my readers the valuable 
opinions of Mr. Crawford (late Governor of Sin- 
gapore) on this subject : 

" I am of opinion (Mr. Crawford writes) that 
a settlement on the north-west coast of Borneo, 
— that is, at a convenient point on the southern 
shore of the China Sea, — would be highly ad- 
vantageous to this country, as a coal-depot for 
steam - navigation ; as a means of suppressing 
Malayan piracy ; as a harbour of refuge for ships 
disabled in the China Sea ; and finally, as a com- 
manding position during a naval war. 

" The island of Labuan has been pointed out 



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CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN. 213 

for this purpose ; and as far as our present limited 
knowledge of it will allow me to judge, it appears 
to possess all the necessary qualities for such a 
settlement. 

"The requisite properties are, salubrity of 
climate, a good harbour, a position in the track 
of steam-navigation, conveniency of position for 
ships disabled in typhoons, conveniency of posi- 
tion for our cruisers during war, and a locality 
strong and circumscribed by nature, so as to be 
readily capable of cheap defence. 

"Labuan lies in about 6° of north latitude, 
and consequently the average heat will be about 
83° of Fahrenheit ; the utmost range of the ther- 
mometer will not exceed ten degrees. In short, 
the year is a perpetual hot summer. It is, at 
the same time, well ventilated by both monsoons ; 
and being near twenty miles from the marshy 
shores of the Borneo River, there is little ground 
to apprehend that it will be found unhealthy, 
even if those shores themselves had been ascer- 
tained to be so, which, however, is not the case; 
for, in proof of their salubrity, it may be stated, 
that the town of Borneo is healthy, although 
it stands, and has stood for centuries, on the 
flooded banks of the river ; the houses being 
built on posts, and chiefly accessible by boat. 

"With respect to harbour, a most essential 
point, I do not perceive that the island is in- 
dented by any bay or inlet that would answer 



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214 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN 

the purpose of one. 1 The channel, however, 
which lies between it and the mainland of Bor- 
neo, is but seven miles broad, and will probably 
constitute a spacious and convenient harbour. 
The name of the island itself, which means ' an- 
chorage,* I have no doubt is derived from the 
place affording shelter to native shipping, and 
those probably, in most cases, fleets of pirate 
prahus. This channel is again further restricted 
by four islets, and these, with four more lying 
to the south-west, will afford shelter in the south- 
west or mild monsoon ; protection is given in 
the north-east, the severest monsoon, by Labuan 
itself: and I may add, that the island is, by four 
degrees of latitude, beyond the extreme southern 
limit of the typhoons of the Chinese Sea. 

"In the channel between Labuan and the 
main, or rather between Labuan and the islets al- 
ready mentioned, the soundings on the Admiralty 
chart shew that vessels drawing as much as 
eighteen feet water may anchor within a mile of 
the shore, and the largest vessels within a mile 
and a half; a convenience for shipping which 
greatly exceeds that of Singapore. One of the 
advantages of Labuan will be, that it will prove 
a port of refuge for shipping disabled in the 
storms of the Chinese Seas. Many examples, 

1 Sir Edward Belcher has since surveyed Labuan in her Ma- 
jesty's ship Samarang, and finding an excellent harbour, named 
it Victoria Bay. Vide Plan.— H. K. 



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FOR THE PROPOSED COLONY. 215 

indeed some of recent occurrence, might be ad- 
duced to shew the need there is of such a port. 

"Labuan lies nearly in the direct track both 
of steam and sailing navigation from India to 
China, during the north-east, the worst and se- 
verest of the two monsoons; and is as inter- 
mediate a position between Singapore and Hong 
Kong as can be found, being 700 miles from the 
former, and 1000 from the latter. 

"The insular character and narrow limits 
of Labuan will make it easily and cheaply de- 
fensible. The extreme length of the island ap- 
pears to be about six miles, its greatest breadth 
about four and a half, and probably its whole 
area will not be found to exceed thirty square 
miles. 

"From the rude tribes of the immediate 
vicinity no hostile attack is to be apprehended 
that would make the present erection of forts or 
batteries necessary. No Asiatic enemy is at any 
time to be feared that would make such defences 
requisite. In five-and-twenty years it has not 
been found imperative to have recourse to them 
at Singapore. It is only in case of war with a 
naval power that fortifications would be required ; 
but I am not informed what local advantages 
Labuan possesses for their erection. A principal 
object of such fortifications would be the defence 
of the shipping in the harbour from the inroads 
of an enemy's cruisers. At one point the sound- 



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216 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN 

ings, as given in the Admiralty chart, are stated 
nine fathoms, within three quarters of a mile of 
the shore: and I presume that batteries within 
this distance would afford protection to the largest 
class of merchantmen. In Singapore Roads no 
class of shipping above mere native craft can lie 
nearer than two miles of the shore ; so that in a 
war with an European naval power, the merchant 
shipping there can only be defended by her Ma- 
jesty's navy. 

" One of the most striking national advantages 
to be expected from the possession of Labuan would 
consist in its use in defending our own commerce, 
and attacking that of opponents, in the event of 
a naval war. Between the eastern extremity of 
the Straits of Malacca and Hong Kong, a dis- 
tance of 1700 miles, there is no British harbour, 
and no safe and accessible port of refuge ; Hong 
Kong is, indeed, the only spot within the wide 
limits of the Chinese Sea for such a purpose, 
although our legitimate commercial intercourse 
within it extends over a length of 2000 miles. 
Everywhere else, Manilla and the newly opened 
ports of China excepted, our crippled vessels or 
our merchantmen pursued by the enemy's cruisers, 
are met by the exclusion or extortion of semi- 
barbarous nations, or in danger of falling into the 
power of robbers and savages. 

" Labuan fortified, and supposing the Borneon 
coal to be as productive and valuable in quality 



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FOR THE PROPOSED COLONY. 217 

as it is represented, would give Great Britain in 
a naval war the entire command of the China Sea. 
This would he the result of our possessing or com- 
manding the only available supply of coal, that of 
Bengal and Australia excepted, to he found in the 
wide limits which extend east of the continents of 
Europe and America. 

" The position of Lahuan will render it the most 
convenient possible for the suppressing of piracy. 
The most desperate and active pirates of the whole 
Indian Archipelago are the tribes of the Sooloo 
group of islands lying close to the north shore of 
Borneo, and the people of the north and north* 
eastern coast of Borneo itself; these have of late 
years proved extremely troublesome both to the 
English and Dutch traders ; both nations are 
bound by the Convention of 1824 to use their 
best endeavours for the suppression of piracy, and 
many efforts have certainly been made for this 
purpose, although as yet without material effect 
in diminishing the evil. 

"From Labuan, these pirates might certainly 
be intercepted by armed steamers far more conve- 
niently and cheaply than from any other position 
that could be easily pointed out : indeed, the very 
existence of a British settlement' would tend to the 
suppression of piracy. 

" As a commercial dep6t, Labuan would have 
considerable advantages by position; the native 
trade of the vicinity would of course resort to it, 



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218 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN 

and so would that of the north coast of Borneo, 
of the Sooloo Islands, and of a considerable por- 
tion of the Spice Islands. Even for the trade 
of the Philippines and China, it would have the 
advantage over Singapore of a voyage by 700 miles 
shorter ; a matter of most material consequence to 
native commerce. 

"With all the countries of the neighbourhood 
lying west of Labuan I presume that a communi- 
cation across both monsoons might be maintained 
throughout the year. This would include a por- 
tion of the east coast of the Malay peninsula, Siam, 
and part of Cochin China. 

" Labuan belongs to that portion of the coast 
of Borneo which is the rudest. The Borneons them- 
selves are of the Malay nation, originally emigrants 
from Sumatra, and settled here for. about six cen- 
turies. They are the most distant from their 
original seat of all the colonies which have sprung 
from this nation. The people from the interior 
differ from them in language, manners, and reli- 
gion, and are divided into tribes as numerous 
and as rude as the Americans when first seen by 
Europeans. 

" From such a people we are not to expect any 
valuable products of art or manufacture, for a 
British mercantile depot. Pepper is, however, 
produced in considerable quantity, and the pro- 
ducts of the forests are very various, as bees- wax, 
gum-benjamin, fine camphor, camphor oil, esculent 



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FOR THE PROPOSED COLONY. 219 

callows' nests, canes and rattans, which used to 
~*cnn the staple articles of Borneon import into 
Singapore. The Borneon territory opposite to La- 
buan abounds also, I believe, in the palm which 
yields sago, and indeed the chief part of the manu- 
factured article was thirty years ago brought from 
this country. The Chinese settlers would, no 
doubt, as in Singapore and Malacca, establish 
factories for its preparation according to the im- 
proved processes which they now practise at those 
places. 

" There may be reason to expect, however, that 
Jthe timber of the portion of Borneo referred to 
may be found of value for ship-building ; for Mr. 
Dalrymple states that in his time, above seventy 
years ago, Chinese junks of 500 tons burden used 
to be built in the river of Borneo. J As to timber 
well suited for boats and house -building, it is 
hardly necessary to add that the north-west coast 
of Borneo, in common with almost every other part 
of the Archipelago, contains a supply amounting 
to superfluity. 

" I may take this opportunity of stating, as evi- 
dence of the conveniency of this portion of Borneo 
for a commercial intercourse with China, that 
down to within the last half century a consider- 
able number of Chinese junks were engaged in 
trading regularly with Borneo, and that trade 
ceased only when the native government became 
too bad and weak to afford it protection. With- 



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220 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN 

out the least doubt this trade would again spring 
up on the erection of the British flag at Labuan* 
Not a single Chinese junk had resorted to the 
Straits of Malacca before the establishment of 
Singapore, and their number is now, of one size 
or another, and exclusive of the junks of Siam 
and Cochin China, not less than 100. 

" From the cultivation of the land I should not 
be disposed to expect any thing beyond the produc- 
tion of fresh fruits and esculent vegetables, and, 
when the land is cleared, of grass for pasture, 
'The seas, in this part of the world, are prolific in 
fish of great variety and great excellence ; and the 
Chinese settlers are found every where skilful and 
industrious in taking them, j 

" Some difficulty will, in the beginning, be ex- 
perienced with respect to milk, butter, and fresh 
meat : this was the case at first in Singapore, but 
the difficulty has in a good measure been over- 
come. The countries of the Archipelago are gene- 
rally not suited to pasture, and it is only in a few 
of them that the ox and buffalo are abundant. 
The sheep is so no where, and, for the most part, 
is wanting altogether. Cattle, therefore, must be 
imported. 

"As to corn, it will unquestionably be found 
far cheaper to import than to raise it. Rice will 
be the chief bread-corn, and^will come in great 
abundance and cheapness from Siam and Cochin 
China. No country within 700 miles of Singa. 



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FOR THE PROPOSED COLONY. 221 

pore is abundant in corn, and none is grown in the 
island: yet, from the first establishment of the 
settlement to the present time, corn has been both 
cheap and abundant, there has been wonderfully 
little fluctuation, there are always stocks, and for 
many years a considerable exportation. A variety 
of pulses, vegetable oil, and culinary salt, will be 
derived from the same countries, as is now done in 
abundance by Singapore. 

" The mines of antimony are 300 miles to the 
south-west of Labuan, and those of gold on the west 
and the south coasts ; and I am not aware that any 
mineral wealth has been discovered in the portion 
of Borneo immediately connected with Labuan, ex- 
cept that of coal — far more important and valu- 
able, indeed, than gold or antimony. The exist- 
ence of a coal-field has been traced from Labuan 
to the islands of Kayn-arang — which words, in 
fact, mean coal-island — to the island of Chermin, 
and from thence to the mainland, over a distance 
of thirty miles. With respect to the coal of 
Labuan itself, I find no distinct statement beyond 
the simple fact of the existence of the mineral ; 
but the coal of the two islands in the river, and 
of the main, is proved to be — from analysis and 
trial in steam-navigation — superior to nearly all 
the coal which India has hitherto yielded, and 
equal to some of our best English coals. This 
is the more remarkable, as it is known that most 
surface-minerals, and especially coals, are inferior 



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222 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN 

to the portions of the same veins or beds more 
deep-seated. 

" Nearly as early as the British flag is erected, 
and, at all events, as soon as it is permanently 
known to be so, there may be reckoned upon with 
certainty a large influx of settlers. The best and 
most numerous of these will be the Chinese. They 
were settled on the Borneo river when the Borneo 
government, never very good, or otherwise than 
comparatively violent and disorderly, was most en- 
durable. 

'lit- will be seen by the map that Borneo is, of 
all the great islands of the western portion of the 
Archipelago, the nearest to China, and Labuan 
and its neighbourhood the nearest point of this 
island. The distance of Hong Kong is about 1000 
miles, and that of the island of Hainan, a great 
place for emigration, not above 800 ; distances 
which to the Chinese junks — fast sailers before 
the strong and favourable winds of the monsoons- 
do not make voyages exceeding four or five days. 
The coasts of the provinces of Canton and Fokien 
have hitherto been the great hives from which 
Chinese emigration has proceeded ; and even Fo- 
kien is not above 1400 miles from Labuan, a 
voyage of seven or eight days. Chinese trade 
and immigration will come together. The north- 
west coast of Borneo produces an unusual supply 
of those raw articles for which there is always a 
demand in the markets of China; and Labuan, 



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FOR THE PROPOSED COLONY. 223 

it may be reckoned upon with certainty, will soon 
become the seat of a larger trade with China than 
the river of Borneo ever possessed. 

" I by no means anticipate the same amount of 
rapid advance in population, commerce, or finan- 
cial resources for Labuan, that has distinguished 
the history of Singapore, a far more centrical po- 
sition for general commerce ; still I think its pro- 
spect of success undoubted; while it will have some 
advantages which Singapore cannot, from its na- 
ture, possess. Its coal-mines, and the command of 
the coal-fields on the river of Borneo, are the most 
remarkable of these ; and its superiority as a post- 
office 1 station necessarily follows. Then it is far 
more convenient as a port of refuge ; and, as far 
as our present knowledge will enable us to judge, 
infinitely more valuable for military purposes, more 
especially for affording protection to the commerce 
which passes through the Chinese Sea, amounting 
at present to probably not less than 300,000 tons 
of shipping, carrying cargoes certainly not under 
the value of 15,000,000/. sterling. 

"Labuan ought, like Singapore, to be a free 
port; and assuredly will not prosper if it is not. 
Its revenue should not be derived from customs, 

1 Vide Mr. Wise's Plan for accelerating the communication 
between Great Britain and China, viz. the conveyance of the 
mails from Hong Kong to Suez (vid Ceylon) direct. Submitted 
to her Majesty's Government, 14th September, 1843; adopted 
20th June, 1845. 



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224 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN 

but, as in that settlement, from excise duties: 
upon the nature of these, as it is well known, it 
is unnecessary to enlarge. They covered during 
my time, near twenty years ago, and within five 
years of the establishment of the settlement, the 
whole charges of a small but sufficient garrison 
(100 Sepoys), and a moderate but competent civil 
establishment. 

"The military and civil establishments have 
been greatly increased of late years ; but the re- 
venue, still in its nature the same, has kept pace 
with them. During my administration of Singa- 
pore, the municipal charges fell on the general 
fund ; but they are at present amply provided for 
from a distinct source, chiefly an assessment on 
house-property. 

" If the military and civil charges of Labuan 
are kept within moderate bounds, I make no 
doubt but that a similar excise revenue will be 
adequate to cover the charges of both, and that 
in peace at least the state need not be called on 
to make any disbursement on its account; while 
during a naval war, if the state make any expen- 
diture, it will be fully compensated by the addi- 
tional security which the settlement will afford to 
British commerce, and the annoyance it will cause 
to the enemy. 

"As to the disposal of the land, always a 
difficult question in a new and unoccupied colony, 
the result of my own inquiries and personal ex- 



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FOR THE PROPOSED COLONY. 225 

perience lead me to offer it as my decided con- 
viction, that the most expedient plan — that which 
is least troublesome to the government, most satis- 
factory to the settler, and ultimately most con- 
ducive to the public prosperity — is to dispose of 
it for a term of years, that is, on long leases of 
1000 years, or virtually in perpetuity ; the object 
in this case of adopting the leasehold tenure 
being, by making the land a chattel interest, to 
get rid of the difficulties in the matter of inherit- 
ance and transfer, which, under the administra- 
tion of English law, and in reference more par- 
ticularly to the Asiatic people who will be the 
principal landowners, are incident to real pro- 
perty. Town allotments might be sold subject to 
a considerable quit-rent; but allotments in the 
country for one entirely nominal. Those of the 
latter description should be small, proportionate 
with the extent of the island, and the time and 
difficulty required in such a climate to clear the 
land, now overgrown for the most part with a 
stupendous forest of evergreen trees, and the wood 
of which is too abundant to be of any value, cer- 
tainly for the most part not worth the land-car- 
riage of a couple of furlongs. 

" A charter for the administration of justice 
should be as nearly as possible contemporaneous 
with the cession. Great inconvenience has re- 
sulted in all our Eastern settlements of the same 
nature with that speculated on at Labuan, from 

VOL. II. Q 



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226 CAPABILITIES OF LABUAN. 

the want of all legal provision for the administra- 
tion of justice; and remembering this, it ought to 
be guarded against in the case of Labuan. 

" Whether in preparing for the establishment 
of a British settlement on the coast of Borneo, 
or in actually making one, her Majesty's minis- 
ters, I am satisfied, will advert to the merits and 
peculiar qualifications of Mr. Brooke. That gen- 
tleman is unknown to me, except by his acts and 
writings; but, judging by these, I consider him 
as possessing all the qualities which have distin- 
guished the successful founders of new colonies ; 
intrepidity, firmness, and enthusiasm, with the 
art of governing and leading the masses. He 
possesses some, moreover, which have not always 
belonged to such men, however otherwise distin- 
guished; a knowledge of the language, manners, 
customs, and institutions of the natives by whom 
the colony is to be surrounded; with benevolence 
and an independent fortune, — things still more 
unusual with the projectors of colonies. Towards 
the formation of a new colony, indeed, the avail- 
able services of such a man, presuming they are 
available, may be considered a piece of good 
fortune/ 5 



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CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 
[First Edition.] 

The recent proceedings of Government in follow- 
ing up the impression made upon Malay piracy, 
as related in these pages ; the appointment of Mr. 
Brooke as ^British Agent in Borneo, armed with 
the moral and physical power of his country ; the 
cession of the island of Labuan to the British 
Crown; and the great advance already made by 
the English ruler of Sarawak, in laying broad 
foundations for native prosperity, whilst extending 
general security and commerce ; all cpmbine to 
add an interest to the early individual steps 
which have led to measures of so much national 
consequence. 

Deeply as I felt the influence of that indivi- 
dual on the condition of Borneo, and the Malayan 
Archipelago generally, whilst employed there, and 
much as I anticipated from his energetic charac- 
ter, extraordinary exertions, and enlarged views 
for the future, I confess that my expectations 
have been greatly increased by the progress of 



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228 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

events since that period. It needed nothing to 
confirm my faith in the results that were sure to fol- 
low from his enlightened acts — from his prudence 
and humanity in the treatment of his Dyak subjects, 
and the neighbouring and interior independent tribes 
— from his firm resistance to the Malay tyranny 
exercised upon the aborigines, and his punish- 
ment of Malay aggression, wherever perpetrated. 
But when I see these elements of good wisely 
seconded by the highest authorities of England, 
I cannot but look for the consummation of every 
benefit desired, much more rapidly and effectively 
than if left to the efforts of a private person, 
even though that person were a Brooke 1 If the 
appearance of H.M.S. Dido on the coast and at 
Sarawak produced a salutary effect upon all our 
relations with the inhabitants, it may well be pre- 
sumed that the mission of Captain Bethune, and 
the expedition under Bear-Admiral Sir Thomas 
Cochrane, must have greatly improved and ex- 
tended that wholesome state of affairs. Indeed, 
it is evident, by the complete success which at- 
tended Mr. Brooke's official visit to Borneo Pro- 
per in H.M.S. Driver, after receiving despatches 
from Lord Aberdeen appointing him British Agent 
in the island, carried out by Captain Bethune in 
November 1844, that the presence of a British 
force in those seas was alone necessary to enable 
him to suppress piracy, and perfect his plans for 
the establishment of a native government which 



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CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 229 

should not oppress the country, and which should 
cultivate the most friendly intercourse with us. 
Thus we find the piratical Pangeran Usop put 
down, and Muda Hassim exercising the sovereign 
power in the name of his imbecile nephew, who 
still retains the title of Sultan. The principal 
chiefs, and men distinguished by talent and some 
acquaintance with foreign affairs, are now on our 
side ; and it only requires to support them, in order 
that civilisation may rapidly spread over the land, 
and Borneo become again, as it was one or two 
centuries ago, the abode of an industrious, rich, 
pacific, and mercantile people, interchanging pro- 
ducts with all the trading nations of the world, and 
conferring and reaping those blessings which follow 
in the train of just and honourable trade where- 
soever its enterprising spirit leads in the pursuit 
of honest gain. As the vain search for the philo- 
sopher's stone conducted to many a useful and 
valuable discovery ; so may we be assured that the 
real seeking for gold through the profitable medium 
of commerce has been, is, and will be the grand 
source of filling the earth with comfort and happi- 
ness. 

Among the numerous visions of this kind which 
open to our sense whilst reflecting on the new 
prospects of this vast island — so little known, 
yet known to possess almost unbounded means to 
invite and return commercial activity — is the con- 
templation of the field it presents to missionary 



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230 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

labours. When we read Mr. Brooke's description 
of the aboriginal Dyak, and observe what he has 
himself done in one locality within the space of 
four or five short years, what may we hot expect 
to be accomplished by the zeal of Christian mis- 
sions, judiciously directed to reclaim such a people 
from utter barbarism, and induce them to become 
true members of a faith which teaches forbearance 
and charity between man and man, and inculcates, 
with the love and hope of heaven, an abhorrence 
of despotism and blood, and a disposition to live 
in good will and peace with all our fellow-creatures ? 
There are here no prejudices of caste, as in India, 
to impede the missionaries' progress. Mr. Brooke 
has pointed out what may be effected in this way ; 
and we have only to say amen to his prayer, with 
an earnest aspiration that it may be speedily ful- 
filled. 

Having enjoyed the pleasure of communicating 
to the public this satisfactory description of the 
status quo in Borneo to the latest period (Sep- 
tember 1845), I venture to congratulate them 
upon it. Thus far all is well, and as it should be, 
and promising the happiest issue. But I hope I 
may not be charged with presumption in offering 
an opinion from my experience in this quarter, 
and respectfully suggesting that, in addition to a 
permanent British settlement at Labuan, it will 
be absolutely necessary to proceed with the sup- 
pression of Malay piracy, by steadily acting against 



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CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 231 

every pirate-hold. Without a continued and de- 
termined series of operations of this sort, it is my 
conviction that even the most sanguinary and fatal 
onslaughts will achieve nothing beyond a present 
and temporary good. The impression on the native 
mind is not sufficiently lasting. Their old impulses 
and habits return with fresh force ; they forget 
their heavy retribution ; and in two or three years 
the memory of them is almost entirely effaced. Till 
piracy be completely suppressed, there must be no 
relaxation : and well worth the perseverance is the 
end in view, the welfare of one of the richest and 
most improvable portions of the globe, and the 
incalculable extension of the blessings of Britain's 
prosperous commerce and humanising dominion. 

In looking forward to the certain realisation 
of these prospects, I may mention the important 
circumstance of the discovery of coal in abundance 
for the purposes of steam navigation. The surveys 
already made afford assurance of this fact ; and the 
requisite arrangements are in progress for opening 
and working the mines. It is generally known that 
the Dutch assert very wide pretensions to colonies 
and monopolies in those seas. The Treaty between 
the Netherlands Government and England will be 
found in the Appendix ; and although that im- 
portant document contains no reference whatever 
to Borneo, it is most desirable for the general ex- 
tension of commerce that no national jealousies, 
no ideas of conflicting interests, no encroaching 



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232 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

and ambitious projects, may be allowed to interfere 
with or prevent the beneficial progress of this im- 
portant region. With such a man as Mr. Brooke 
to advise the course most becoming, disinterested, 
and humane for the British empire to pursue, it is 
not too much to say that, if the well-being of these 
races of our fellow-creatures is defeated or post- 
poned, the crime will not lie at our door. The 
sacrifices we have made to extinguish Slavery 
throughout the world are a sure and unquestion- 
able pledge that we will do our utmost to extirpate 
the horrid traffic in those parts, and to uproot the 
system of piracy that feeds it. It is the bounden 
duty of both Holland and Great Britain to unite 
cordially in this righteous cause. The cry of na- 
ture is addressed to them; and if rejected, as 
surely as there is justice and mercy in the Provi- 
dence which overrules the fate of nations, no bless- 
ing will prosper them, but wealth, and dominion, 
and happiness will pass away from them for ever. 
Mr. Brooke invokes their co-operation ; and his 
noble appeal cannot be withstood. 



The central position of Labuan is truly remark- 
able. That island is distant from 

Hong Kong 1009 miles. 

Singapore 707 „ 

Siam 984 „ 

Manilla 650 ,, 



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CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 233 

On the other hand, Mr, Brooke's territory of Sa- 
rawak is distant from 

Singapore 427 miles. 

Labuan ...... 304 „ 

Hong Kong 1199 „ 

How direct and central are these valuable 
possessions for the universal trade of the East! — 
and how expedient to have a fair knowledge of 
their geographical and navigable capabilities ! To 
help forward these desiderata, the maps which illus- 
trate this work have been carefully constructed ; 
and in order that they might be more available 
to men-of-war as well as to merchantmen, the use 
of mixed foreign and barbarous names has been 
superseded 1 by such plain English as * point/ ' cape,' 
' bay/ ' river/ c mount/ ' bluff/ &c. 

1 At the recommendation of one of our ablest hydrographers, 
Captain F. Beaufort, R.N., F.R.S., after the maps were en- 
graved with the old unintelligible titles of Tanjong, Pulo, Gu- 
nong, Songi, &c. 



VOL. II. R 



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POSTSCRIPT 



TO 



THE SECOND EDITION. 



June 6th, 1846. 
In the foregoing remarks with which I closed 
the first edition of this book, I ventured to con- 
gratulate the public on the cheerful aspect of af- 
fairs in Borneo at the latest period of which ac- 
counts had then reached me. I could then say 
with a joyful heart, " Thus far all is well and as 
it should be, and promising the happiest issue." 
But now I must write in a different strain. The 
mischiefs I pointed out above as likely to ensue 
from a desultory and intermittent mode of dealing 
with Malay piracy have revealed themselves even 
sooner and in a more formidable manner than I 
had anticipated. The weak and covetous Sultan 
of Borneo has, with more than the usual fickleness 
of Asiatics, already forgotten the lessons we gave 
him and the engagements he solemnly and volun- 
tarily contracted with us. Mr. Brooke's faithful 
friends, Muda Hassim and the Pangeran Budru- 
deen, with numbers of their families and retainers, 
have been basely murdered by their treacherous 



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POSTSCRIPT TO SECOND EDITION* 235 

kinsman, because of their attachment to the Eng- 
lish, and their unswerving determination to put 
down piracy ; and what is worst of all, Mr, Brooke's 
arch-enemy, the subtle and indefatigable villain 
Macota, the man whose accursed head was thrice 
saved by my too-generous friend, has now returned 
triumphantly to the scene of his former crimes, and 
is commissioned by the Sultan to take Mr. Brooke's 
life by poison, or by any other of those treacherous 
arts in which there is no more consummate adept 
than Macota. I could trust securely to Mr. 
Brooke's gallantry and skill for the protection of 
his life against the attacks of open foes ; and my 
only fears arise when I reflect on his utter insen- 
sibility to danger, and think how the admirable 
qualities of his own guileless confiding nature may 
facilitate the designs of his enemies. 

H. M. S. Hazard, from Hong Kong, having 
touched at Bruni about the end of March last, was 
boarded by a native, who gave the captain such 
information as induced him to sail with all speed 
for Sarawak ; and there this man made the fol- 
lowing deposition : 

Japper, a native of Bruni, deposes that be was sent aboard 
H.M.S. Hazard by the Pangeran Muda Mahomed, to warn the 
captain against treachery, and to communicate the following de- 
tails to Mr. Brooke at Sarawak. 

The Rajah Muda Hassim was raised by the Sultan to the 
title of Sultan Muda (or young Sultan), and, together with his 
brothers and followers, was living in security, when he was at- 



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236 POSTSCRIPT TO SECOND EDITION. 

tacked by orders of the Sultan at night, and, together with thir- 
teen of his family, killed, in different places. Four brothers, viz. 
Pangeran Muda Mahomed, Pangeran Abdul Kader, Pangeran 
Abdulraman, and Pangeran Mesahat, together with several young 
children of the Rajah Muda Hassim, alone survive. The de- 
ponent Japper was in attendance on his lord, the Pangeran Bud- 
rudeen, at the time of the attack. The Pangeran, though sur- 
prised by his enemies, fought for some time, and when desperately 
wounded, retired outside his house with his sister and another 
woman named Koor Salem. The deponent was there and was 
wounded, as were both the women. The Pangeran Budrudeen 
ordered deponent to open a keg or cask of gunpowder, which he 
did ; and the last thing his lord did was to take his ring from 
his finger and desire the deponent to carry it to Mr* Brooke ; 
to bid Mr. Brooke not to forget him, and not to forget to lay 
his case before the Queen of England. The deponent then 
quitted his lord, who was with the two women, and imme- 
diately after his lord fired the powder, and the three were blown 
up. The deponent escaped with difficulty ; and a few days after- 
wards, the ring entrusted to his charge was taken from him by 
the Sultan. The Sultan and those with him killed the Rajah 
Muda Hassim and his family, because he was the friend of the 
English, and wanted to suppress piracy. The Sultan has now 
built forts and defied the English. He talked openly of cutting 
out any vessel that arrived ; and two Pangerans went down, bear- 
ing the flag of the Rajah Muda Hassim, to look at the vessel, 
and to kill the captain if they could get him ashore. The de- 
ponent had great difficulty in getting to the ship; and should 
his flight be discovered, he considers the lives of the surviving 
portion of the Rajah Muda Hassim's family will be in danger. 
The deponent did what he was ordered, and what his late lord the 
Pangeran Budrudeen desired him to do. The Sultan had a man 
ready to send, named Nakodah Kolala, to Kaluka, to request that 
Pangeran Macota would kill Mr. Brooke by treachery or poison. 

(Signed) J. Brooke. 



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POSTSCRIPT TO SECOND EDITION, 237 

Having put Mr. Brooke on his guard, the 
Hazard proceeded to Singapore, whence the H. E. 
I. C. war-steamer Phlegethon would be immediately 
despatched to Sarawak. 



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ADDITIONAL CHAPTER. 

Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane sails for Borneo. Particulars of 
the massacre. Its instigators. Destruction of batteries on 
the river of Bruni. Flight of the Sultan. Unsuccessful pur- 
suit. The people of Bruni favourably disposed to the English. 
A proclamation issued by the Admiral. Operations against 
the Illanun pirates. The Sultan pardoned. Captain Mundy's 
interview with him. Formal occupation of Labuan. Un- 
toward events. Importance of Labuan. Dutch policy in the 
East. Macassar declared a free port. Mr. Brooke ap- 
pointed Commissioner and Consul General. Latest news. 

On receipt of the intelligence referred to in Cap- 
tain KeppePs postscript to the second edition, 
Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane at once determined 
to hring Sultan Omar to a strict reckoning for the 
atrocities imputed to him. Touching with the 
fleet at Sarawak on the 24th of June, 1846, he 
invited the Government Agent, Mr. Brooke, to ac- 
company him to Bruni, and assist in the intended 
investigation. .Meanwhile, that gentleman had 
taken such steps as his means enabled him to 
adopt towards checking the further development 
of the calamity that had occurred. He had visited 
several parts of the coast in the Phlegethon, to 
ascertain the feelings of the inhabitants, and to 



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PARTICULARS OF THE MASSACRE, 239 

prevent them from following the Sultan's example, 
should they be so disposed. But every where he 
found the people loud in their condemnation of 
the Sultan's proceedings, and greatly disaffected 
towards his government. It was only from the 
northward that news of a different complexion was 
received. The Illanun pirates in that quarter were 
busily bestirring themselves, actuated, of course, by 
the belief that the government of Bruni was again 
prepared to make common cause with them. In 
fact, by the flagrant violation of his engagements* 
solemnly and voluntarily entered into with the 
British authorities, and by the murder of his rela- 
tives solely on account of their fidelity to the faith 
of treaties, to the law of nations, and to the true 
interests of their country and of mankind, the Sul- 
tan had unequivocally avowed himself a pirate. 
Such appears to have been the view taken of the 
case by our Admiral. 

On the 4th of July, the Admiral, accompanied 
by Mr. Brooke, arrived off Mooarro island, at the 
entrance of the Bruni River, where they learned 
several particulars respecting the recent murders, 
and found that rumour, instead of exaggerating the 
reality, had fallen far short of it. The Bajah Muda 
Hassim, one of his sons, Pkngeran Budrudeen, seven 
brothers, one sister, other relations, and about a 
similar number of other persons, had perished si- 
multaneously. Two of the remaining princes were 
subsequently put to death upon its being discovered 



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240 THE INSTIGATORS OF THE MASSACRE. 

that Si Japper had fled to Mr, Brooke with infor- 
mation of what had occurred ; and of the whole 
family there remained in existence only two bro- 
thers, and the son and heir of the Rajah. These 
three owed their safety to the protection of the 
most powerful remaining Pangeran, named Mu- 
mim, who, although son-in-law of the Sultan, dis- 
approved of the deed, but confined his interference 
to the protection of those parties. In one of his 
despatches to the Admiralty, Sir Thomas Coch- 
rane says : 

" The cause of this sudden change of conduct 
on the part of the Sultan (who, their Lordships 
are already aware, is a very weak as well as ill- 
conditioned character) was the fate that had at- 
tended Pangeran Usop, whom, their Lordships will 
remember, I, at the Sultan's request, last year 
attacked and drove from the city, and who was 
subsequently taken and put to death by Budrudeen, 
in consequence of an attack he made upon it after 
my departure. It would appear that the Sultan's 
reputed son, a man of worthless character, Pange- 
ran Hassim, had married Usop's daughter; and, 
partaking of his father-in-law's hostility to the 
English, and disposition to piracy, as well as deeply 
resenting his fall, and exercising the very great 
influence he had over the mind of the Sultan, he, 
in conjunction with a very clever and artful man, 
named Hadgi Samod, at last brought his Highness 
to consent to this deed of revenge. 



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THE FLEET ARRIVES OFF BRUNI. 5241 

" Our informants further stated, that so soon as 
this crime had been perpetrated, the Sultan began 
to place the river and city in a state of defence; and 
Commander Egerton, of the Hazard, corroborated 
the statement that a trap had been laid for him to 
get him to the city, and, as alleged by the inform- 
ants, with the view of putting him to death. 

"Under all the foregoing circumstances, and 
those considerations alluded to in my letter, No. 
95, before referred to, there did not appear to me 
the shadow of a doubt as to my right, with refer- 
ence to those principles which govern European 
states under similar circumstances, to proceed with 
an armed force, and demand an explanation of these 
hostile deeds." 

When off the island of Chermin, at the mouth 
of Bruni River, the Admiral received a sort of 
apologetic letter from the Sultan, offering a vague 
explanation of the treatment complained of by 
Commander Egerton, of the Hazard, and request- 
ing in general terms that "his friend should not 
believe any thing Si Japper might have stated." 
The letter contained no more explicit allusion 
to the recent transactions, nor did it prohibit an 
approach by an armed force, or threaten resist- 
ance. 

On the 8th of July the fleet passed the bar 
and ascended the river, the Phlegethon leading 
the way, and sounding. On approaching Pulo 
Bangore, five forts opened to view, admirably 



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242 ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PIRATES. 

placed for denying a passage beyond them. A 
gun was fired from one of the forts, and the 
largest of them hoisted a flag, which Mr. Brooke 
recognised as that of his murdered friend, Muda 
Hassim. For a while some doubt was felt on 
board the flag-ship as to whether this was not 
intended as an intimation that the English should 
be received as friends. But they were not long 
left in suspense upon the subject, as the moment 
the Fhlegethon had passed the narrows, the bat- 
tery commenced a spirited fire, which was promptly 
returned. The five forts were stormed, the guns 
destroyed, and the magazine blown up. 

Higher up the river there was a heavy battery, 
afleur (Feau, consisting of eight brass and two iron 
guns, from 68 to 9 pounders, supported by five 
other heavy works on hills not far in the rear. The 
main battery pointed directly down to a bend of the 
river, from which it was distant about 800 yards, 
and round which the fleet had to turn. As soon as 
the ships appeared in sight, all these batteries com- 
menced a sharp and extremely well-directed fire 
upon them, seconded by a play of musketry from 
the woods on the right, to which the Spiteful, the 
flag-ship, was obliged to submit without retaliation. 
Her position was for a while very critical, with the 
beach but a few yards beyond her paddle-boxes, the 
Royalist in tow, and the boats filled with the whole 
of the landing force. The utmost silence and at- 
tention were required to prevent the whole being 



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FLIGHT OF THE SULTAN* 243 

thrown on shore. But the Phlegethon soon put an 
end to the crisis. The fire from her ship -guns, 
from the battery of field -pieces placed round her 
bows, and from the brigade of rockets planted upon 
her bridge, together with the now rapid progress of 
the whole force directly up the river, so astonished 
and dismayed the enemy that they fled before the 
steamers could reach their works, or the storming 
party carry out the service intended for it. The 
marines under Captain Hawkins immediately took 
possession of the heights that command the town* 
These operations were not accomplished without 
loss ; two men having been killed, and seven 
wounded. 

The city was found entirely deserted by the 
inhabitants, and the Sultan had fled into the 
interior. A force of nearly 500 men, under Capt. 
Mundy, was sent in pursuit of him on the 10th. 
Mr. Brooke accompanied the expedition, which was 
directed against Damuan, a village SO miles from 
Bruni, where the Sultan was supposed to have de- 
termined on making a stand. On their way they 
arrived at the village of Kabran, where they found a 
large house deserted by its owners, but full of valu- 
able property secured in massive chests ; also arms, 
ammunition, &c. both for great guns and small 
arms, and several tin cases of fine English powder, 
all of which belonged to Hadgi Hassim. The 
magazines, ammunition, and property were de- 
stroyed, and six Spanish brass guns of considerable 



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244 CONFERENCE WITH LEADING MEN AT BRUNI. 

size and great beauty, which we found on an ad- 
jacent eminence, were carried off. 

After two ineffectual attempts to continue its 
march to Damuan, under heavy rain and through 
a deeply flooded country, the expedition returned 
to Bruni ; whence it started again to take a new 
route on the morning of the 13th. This time it 
succeeded in reaching Damuan ; but too late to 
capture the Sultan, who had already fled further 
inland. The destruction of some household furni- 
ture belonging to the Sultan, magazines of pow- 
der, ammunition for guns of different calibre, and 
a considerable quantity of cartridges, admirably 
made, for musketry, was all that could be ef- 
fected. 

At Bruni the Admiral managed, through Tap- 
per, to open a communication with those of the 
dispersed inhabitants who were friendly to the 
British; and on the day following the occupation 
of the city, he was visited by Pangerans Mumim, 
Buher, and Muda Mohammed. As the Sultan had 
fled, and they were, in fact, without a government, 
the Admiral " invited them to come to some de- 
termination as to the course they would pursue for 
the well-being of their country ;" but they ap- 
peared to be entirely paralysed. 

" Pangeran Mumim," the Admiral observes 
" although condemning the Sultan's proceedings, 
and himself very respectable in character, yet was 
most timid, and seemed to have an aversion to 



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POPULARITY OF THE ENGLISH. 245 

setting the Sultan aside ; and the others, although 
very violent against him, had neither talent nor 
weight to undertake the formation of a new govern- 
ment." 

" Mr. Brooke landed on the following day, and 
at Mumim's house had a meeting on an enlarged 
scale, and stated to it my readiness to assist them 
in any measure that would have the effect of put- 
ting an end to the existing anarchy, or that might 
give permanent security to life and property. But 
on this and subsequent occasions he found the 
same timidity and irresolution to prevail as at their 
conference with me. In point of fact, the massacre 
had been of that sweeping character, as to cut off 
every man of weight or intelligence, and leave the 
survivors in an irrecoverable state of helplessness 
and dismay. 

" In the mean time, the common people had re- 
covered from their panic, and commenced return- 
ing to the town ; and by the fourth or fifth day 
nearly every house was inhabited, and the same 
busy scene presented itself as on ordinary occa- 
sions, the boats flocking round the ships to sell or 
exchange their produce, with as much confidence 
as in any English port; and I am persuaded no- 
thing would have been more gratifying to them than* 
to have learned from me that I was authorised to 
establish an Englishman (such a one, for instance, 
as Mr. Brooke) as their governor and chief, under 
whom they would have felt confident of the undis- 



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246 DISCOVERY OF COAL. 

turbed enjoyment of the produce of their industry, 
and of protection from uncertain and despotic ex- 
actions." 

Having remained eleven days at the city with- 
out any prospect of securing a definite and satisfac- 
tory arrangement, the Admiral, with Mr. Brooke's 
concurrence, addressed a proclamation to the chief 
person actually in the place, to be given to the 
Sultan on his return, detailing the whole of the 
proceedings between him and the British autho- 
rities during the past twelve months ; pointing out 
the unprincipled conduct of the Sultan ; shewing 
how entirely he and his subjects were at the Ad- 
miral's mercy, and threatening him with the most 
vigorous retaliation should he ever again evince 
hostility towards Great Britain. The document 
was read to the assembled authorities, merchants, 
&c, who seemed perfectly pleased with its con- 
tents, and no less so with the intimation that a 
ship of war was to be left with them until Mr. 
Brooke's return. The meeting having broken up, 
the Admiral sailed northward, taking Mr. Brooke 
with him. 

Previously to this, the researches of our coun- 
trymen had been rewarded by the discovery of a 
very fine seam of coal on the mainland, of the same 
quality as the Kiangi coal. It is very favourably 
circumstanced for working, being fourteen feet 
broad, and dipping at an angle of 25° into a low 
hill, separated by only a mile of level ground from 



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OPERATIONS AGAINST NORTHERN PIRATES. 2*7 

the harbour of Mooarro. Report states that there 
are numerous other beds in the same neighbour- 
hood. 

The Admiral's next visit was to the Ulanun 
pirates, on whom he inflicted severe punishment, 
including the destruction of their strongholds on 
the rivers Tampassok and Fandassar. He then 
left Capt. Mundy of the Iris to finish the work so 
well begun, by settling accounts with some of the 
pirates who had not yet been made to feel our 
force; and who, under the directions of Hadgi 
Samod, the Sultan's general, were still carrying 
on hostilities against the native tribes that were 
friendly to the English. Nothing could exceed 
the glee with which our sailors engaged in this 
service. A very animated description of the oper- 
ations is given by Capt. Mundy in a letter dated 
August 28, 1846, from which the following is an 
extract : 

" On the 7th instant, I parted company with 
the Commander-in-Chief; and no sooner was the 
squadron out of sight than I sent Lieut. Little 
away with my boats and five days' provisions, with 
orders to cruise that time along the coast and join 
me 100 miles to the southward. The Admiral's 
orders to me were* to carry on the war against 
the Illanun rascals by sea and land, according to 
my discretion, and to look after the Sultan's first 
chieftain, Hadgi Samod, who had been the prin- 
cipal adviser of the Sultan in the hostile measures 



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248 AUDACITY OF THE PIRATES. 

against us; and who, it was now reported, had 
sought refuge somewhere amongst the piratical 
tribes. 

" On the 12th I anchored at Amhong, and 
Lieut. Little joined me. He had captured and de- 
stroyed one piratical prahu, and had burnt a large 
Illanun village, after sustaining an attack from a 
large body of pirates, who threw spears from the 
banks at the boats, but were eventually driven off 
with the loss of several killed and wounded. No 
one was injured on our side, though the spears 
stuck into the sides of our boats — these fellows 
rushing down within ten yards of the pinnace, 
hurling their darts, and holding up their large 
wooden shields to protect them from musketry. 

" On the 14th we anchored off Kimanis, where 
Mr. Brooke received information that Hadgi Samod 
had fortified himself in the Mambacoot river, dis- 
tant only six miles ; and that nine gun-boats, which 
had been sent from Borneo to attack him, had found 
his position too strong, and had therefore decided 
to remain off Kimanis till the arrival of the frigate. 
I gave directions therefore to Mr. Little to be 
ready with all the boats of the Iris at daylight the. 
following morning, assisted by the Phlegethon cut- 
ters, and to proceed to attack this noted chief 
wherever he might be found. Mr. Brooke and I 
commenced business by sending a messenger to the 
Dyak chief, desiring him to give up Hadgi Samod, 
and enter into friendly communication with us. 



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REMARKABLE INFLUENCE OF MR. BROOKE. 249 

The return message was an insolent bit of bra- 
vado, desiring us to come and take him, and that 
they were not afraid of our shot, which they 
would catch in their hands and throw back at 
our boats. 

" Neither Mr. Brooke nor myself had intended 
to take any active part in the expedition ; but the 
unlooked-for, and, I may add, extraordinary circum- 
stance of the sudden arrival of thirty war prahus, 
carrying twenty guns and about four hundred men, 
under their chiefs, inhabiting districts for twenty 
miles round, for the purpose of paying their respects 
to the English Eajah, and to assure him of their 
anxiety for legitimate commerce, and their wish to 
be friends of England, entirely altered the position 
of affairs. Mr. Brooke, with his accustomed deci- 
sion, after a lengthened discussion with their chief- 
tains, declared it to be his bfelief that they were 
honest men, and that it would be very impolitic on 
our part to refuse the offer of their aid, and that 
he should wish to accompany them. Of course I 
acquiesced immediately, and it was arranged that 
we should go together in the gig, thus putting 
implicit confidence in their faith, whilst Lieu- 
tenant Little could always keep his force com- 
pactly together, ready to act on the first semblance 
of treachery. 

" At five a.m. on the 18th, the boats were in 
movement. At eight I crossed the bar in a beau- 
tiful new gig the Admiral gave me, the principal 

VOL. II. s 



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250 AFFAIR ON THE MAMBACOOT RIVER. 

Pangeran of our new allies shewing the channel. 
Lieutenant Little's force came next, and about a 
quarter of a mile in the rear the large fleet of 
prahus. It was a picturesque scene ; boat after 
boat dashing through the surf with their gaudy 
flags and long streamers, and then shooting into 
the unruffled stream beyond, and taking up their 
assigned positions, which were well under com- 
mand of my guns and rockets. .Our force now 
commenced pulling up against a strong ebb ; and, 
after three good hours at the oars, the first at- 
tempt to oppose our progress appeared in large 
rafts floating down, and soon afterwards the report 
of guns in the distance was heard. On pulling 
swiftly round a point to clear one of the rafts, the 
gig being then about fifty yards ahead of the main 
division, we came suddenly upon a long line of 
thick bamboo stakes fixed across the stream, with an 
immense boom attached to them, but which, owing 
to the freshes, had swung athwart. Facing these 
defences, only eighty yards distant, a fort had been 
erected, which, as soon as our boats came into 
view, opened fire. Before the enemy could reload, 
I fell back upon the gun-boats, and ordered Mr. 
Little to give way and 'at them.' He was soon 
followed by the barge and cutter, and the action 
became general, — shot, rockets, and 'musketry ; 
but, owing to the strength of the tide, it was ten 
minutes before my first lieutenant could get over 
the short distance ; and when he finally captured 



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MANSIONS OF THE PIRATES. 251 

the fort, he found it had been armed with small 
swivel-guns only, which the defenders had managed 
to carry into the jungle. One of our native allies 
recognised Hadgi Samod and his Bornean sub- 
officers in the battery. 

"Having demolished the fort and destroyed the 
magazines, ammunition, &c, we pushed on with- 
out losing time ; and observing, as we passed a 
narrow creek, a prahu endeavouring to escape, we 
dashed at her and captured her; the crew, who 
escaped, leaving behind their spears, krises, and 
sumpitans, i. e. quivers of poisoned arrows. The 
country was' now extremely beautiful. The in- 
terior of the houses was extremely neat, — mats, 
threshing and knitting machines, ordinary imple- 
ments, and other furniture, in capital order ; and 
had it not been for the numerous human skulls 
suspended from the ceiling in regular festoons, 
with the thigh and arm bones occupying the in- 
tervening spaces, and other ornaments peculiar to 
the wildest class of Dyaks, I should have fancied 
myself in a civilised land. 

" At three p.m., on coming to a turn of the 
river, a magnificent mansion presented itself to our 
view, the verandah of which gave a frontage of 
200 feet by 20 in breadth. It was close to the 
river, and partially concealed by cocoanut-trees. 
One of these had been cut down, and of it a kind 
of abatis was made, from behind which, as our 
boats advanced, a masked battery was opened. 



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252 HADGI SAMOD DRIVEN FROM HIS LAST COVER. 

These guns were quickly silenced, and I was not 
long in jumping on terra Jirma, rifle in hand. 
The enemy were driven into the interior, carry- 
ing off their killed and wounded. The house was 
soon in flames ; and amongst the internal decora- 
tions consumed were fifty human skulls, and as 
many packages of human bones — many of them 
evidently the. latest gifts of the Dyak gentlemen to 
their lady-loves ; for you must know that no aris- 
tocratic youth dare venture to pay his addresses 
to the fair one unless he throws at the blushing 
maidens feet a net full of skulls at the same time 
that he offers his hand and heart. 

"At four p.m. we bivouacked for the night ; and 
early in the morning of the 17th a deserter from 
Hadgi Samod swam across the river to our camp, 
and informed us that his chief had retreated in 
despair to the houses at the head of the river. At 
early dawn, therefore, we were on his track, and in 
half an hour a cheer from the headmost boats sig- 
nalised that the last refuge of the enemy was in 
sight. A few strokes more and our guns and 
rockets were in play ; and after a vain endeavour of 
the resolute chief by musketry and sumpets to op- 
pose our steady advance, he was compelled to aban- 
don his fortress and retreat into the wilderness. 
Having burnt all the buildings of those inhabitants 
who had taken an active part against us, we re- 
turned down the river, and were on board the ship 
by sunset. Our loss was one seaman of the Iris 



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REMAINS OF MUDA HASSIM's FAMILY. 253 

t 

killed, and four wounded ; two of the Phlegethon's, 
and eight of our native allies wounded. 

" The native chiefs rendezvoused at the Phleg- 
ethon, where we entertained them till a late hour, 
each of them swearing to protect the persons and 
property of all shipwrecked or distressed Europeans 
who might be driven upon their iron-bound coast ; 
and I really hope we have made a commencement 
in the good work of rendering these seas secure for 
the peaceful trader. The wonderful effect of our 
Congreve rockets gave them an idea of our power ; 
whilst our uniform kindness to all the unpiratical 
tribes plainly bespoke our anxiety to be friendly 
with the good." 

After the termination of the proceedings against 
the Illanuns, Mr. Brooke returned to Bruni to com- 
plete the task of re-establishing order there, which 
the Admiral had confided to his experienced judg- 
ment. Then, having made a short stay in the 
city, he returned to Sarawak, taking with him the 
remains of Muda Hassim's family, among the rest 
his young son, the heir presumptive to the throne 
of Borneo. Let us hope that the boy, thus early re- 
moved from contaminating associations, and trained 
up under so kind and judicious a guardian, will one 
day prove a compensation to his country for the 
disastrous loss it sustained in the premature death 
of his brave, upright, intelligent, and docile uncle, 
Budrudeen. 

In his dealings towards the humbled and fugi- 



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254 CLEMENCY EXTENDED TO THE SULTAN. 

tive Sultan, Mr. Brooke appears to have acted in 
all respects as became his own high character and 
his station as a servant of the British crown. Had 
he chosen, as Rajah of Sarawak, to pursue his 
righteous quarrel to the uttermost against his delin- 
quent feudal chief, he might easily have found spe- 
cious arguments to justify such a course, and pre- 
cedents in abundance as well in European as in 
Asiatic history. But he was not the man to sacri- 
fice a great opportunity of doing good to the satis- 
faction of a merely personal vengeance. It was his 
duty, as British Agent, above all things to uphold 
the fair fame of his country for equity and modera- 
tion ; and from that duty, he never swerved either 
in this or in any other instance. The Sultan was 
no longer dangerous ; his teeth had been drawn ; 
the mass of his people both feared and respected 
the English ; and the presence of our ships on the 
coast would effectually prevent any outbreak of a 
hostile spirit. Meanwhile, Bruni was without a 
government, or the means of constructing one; so 
that it was evidently both safe and expedient to 
permit Omar to return to his capital, in order that 
the administrative routine might resume its ordi- 
nary course under the sanction and prestige of his 
name. With the consent, therefore, of our Agent, 
the Sultan re-entered Bruni within a month after 
his flight from it ; and he wrote Mr. Brooke a very 
humble letter, entreating forgiveness of the past, 
and making strong promises of future good beha- 



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CAPT. MUNDY'S INTERVIEW WITH THE SULTAN. 055 

viour. He also addressed a penitent letter to her 
Majesty, Queen Victoria, in which he renewed and 
ratified his two former engagements. 

Captain Mundy visited the Sultan in state on 
the 19th of September, and thus describes the 
interview : 

"Early on that morning I despatched all the 
boats, armed, under Lieutenant Heath, taking with 
him the detachment of marines, and gave him 
orders to moor the force in line of battle in front 
of the Sultan's new palace, and land the marines 
on the platform commanding the entrance of the 
hall of audience, and there wait my arrival. I left 
the Iris at 7 h 30 m a.m., and pulling the seventeen 
miles in three hours and a half, found all ready 
for my reception. As I stepped on shore I was re- 
ceived under a salute of fifteen guns by Pangeran 
Mumim, and the Sultan met me at the threshold 
of the hall. Here the marines were drawn up, di- 
rectly enfilading the divan ; and as they presented 
arms, I observed the old monarch tremble in his 
slippers ; for he evidently entertained some slight 
suspicion that, as he well merited punishment, I 
would act as his highness would certainly have 
done in my place — namely, kidnap him by trea- 
chery. 

" The Sultan appeared about sixty years of 
age, his countenance denoting imbecility, not un- 
tinctured with hypocrisy. He has two thumbs on 
his right hand, is five feet five inches in height, 



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256 capt. mundy's interview with the sultan. 

thin, and meagre of limb. He was well dressed, 
and his manner and deportment thoroughbred ; 
and he was treated with gre^tt respect by the nu- 
merous princes and magnates who thronged the 
salle. After presenting my officers, I told him 
that I had words for his private ear, and must 
speak with him alone. He led me immediately to 
an antechamber commanding a view of the river. 
He then ordered a large wax taper to be lit and 
placed before us, explaining that this light was 
witness of the purity of his heart, and of the oath 
which he was ready to make of his good-will to- 
wards his sister the Queen of England. I then 
gave him, through my interpreter, the following 
information : that England would insist upon his 
ministers being good men, favourable to Europeans 
and to lawful commerce, exact in the observance 
of treaties, and active in discountenancing piracy ; 
that a grave outrage had been committed by firing 
on the British flag, and that I could not say what 
redress would be considered sufficient. The Sultan 
assured me in reply, that he was ready to submit 
to any terms which the Admiral might dictate ; 
that he would deliver up four of the princes who 
had been active in the late hostilities against us ; 
and that for the future his government should be 
strictly just. I told him he was sure to receive 
justice from our government, and that all depended 
upon his own conduct ; and I ended by remarking 
that it would be much more agreeable for me 



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^REFLECTIONS ON MR. BROOKE^ CAREER. 257 

to protect his new palace and capital, than to re- 
ceive orders to inflict upon it the same chastise- 
ment with which we had visited Tampassok, Pan- 
dassar, and Mamhacoot. 

" The Sultan again swore by the Prophet, in 
honour of whom he had just fasted thirty days, 
that his heart was in the right place ; that he 
had never forgotten the kindness of the Admiral 
to him last year ; and that he had given positive 
orders to Hadgi Samod, who commanded the forts, 
not to fire on us, but that that chieftain would not 
obey him. 

" After a few more words I took my leave, 
and re-embarked; and I will now* only add, that it 
is my firm opinion that he will hereafter submit to 
any demands made by Mr. Brooke, who is, indeed, 
de facto, sultan of the whole territory from Point 
Api to Malludu, a coast of seven hundred miles. 
What an . extraordinary position for an English 
gentleman to be placed in ! And how has he man- 
aged to receive the homage of so vast a popu- 
lation ? By unremitting kindness and attention to 
the natives of every description, during a six years' 
residence. What could be more extraordinary than 
the gathering of the Kajahs off Kimanis, last 
month, just before we attacked Mambacoot ? people 
who had never seen him, and who had only heard 
from others of his benevolence and good government 
at Sarawak. Then how romantic his march against 
the Sultan into the interior! — ending by the total 



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258 LABUAN CEDED TO THE QUEEN. 

submission of the most ancient Mahomedan sove- 
reign of the East, who, I forgot to mention, told 
me that his family had supplied the last twenty- 
five reigning princes, of whom his highness was 
exceedingly proud, and which he hoped would be 
considered by our government as a reason for sup- 
porting him on the throne." 

Thus far events have fully justified the wise 
forbearance manifested towards this weak and de- 
spicable offender by the British Admiral, and by 
Mr. Brooke, acting under his authority. Accord- 
ing to the last accounts from Borneo Proper, the 
Sultan remained deeply impressed by the stern les- 
son he had received ; the people of the coast were 
quiet, and eager for trade ; and the Illanun pirates 
were said to have removed from their untenable 
quarters on the Tampassok and the Fandassar to 
Tunka, a piratical place on the eastern coast, re- 
mote from the broad commercial highway guarded 
by our ships. And now at length we may confi- 
dently hope that this happy state of things will be 
permanent. The crowning act has been put to the 
history of the initiatory struggles for the establish- 
ment of British commerce and British influence in 
the vast and teeming regions of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. After such long disheartening delays, at- 
tended with such deplorable consequences, the flag 
of Great Britain now waves over Labuan, a pledge 
of safety to the peaceful trader, a terror to the 
pirate and the oppressor. 



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THE BRITISH FLAG HOISTED. 259 

The ceremony of taking possession of the is- 
land and its dependencies was performed on the 
24th of Decemher last hy Captain Mundy. The 
Iris and Wolf, which had heen despatched on this 
service, dressed ship; royal salutes were fired; 
marines and. small-armed men landed ; and Pan- 
geran Mumim, the prime minister of Borneo, 
with many chiefs, and a multitude of Malays and 
Dyaks, attended on shore. Their picturesque 
prahus, anchored close to the heach, with flags and 
banners, had a beautiful effect. Captain Mundy 
had on the 18th concluded a treaty with the 
Sultan, by which the island was ceded for ever 
to her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, and 
stipulations were made for the suppression of pi- 
racy all along the coast. These matters were ex- 
plained to the assembled natives in a short speech, 
delivered by Captain Mundy, and put into Malay 
by Lieutenant Heath. The prospect of protection 
and peaceful trade delighted the Borneans; and 
the only drawback to the satisfaction universally 
expressed by them was, that they could not at once 
settle on the island. Numbers of persons had re- 
paired thither with that intention, and were with 
difficulty restrained from so doing by the authority 
of the Admiral, until further instructions should 
have been received from this country. A colony 
will of course be founded in Labuan, nor can its 
existence be long held in abeyance ; but it is right 
that the basis should be laid without precipitation. 



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260 UNTOWARD EVENTS. 

In order, therefore, to avoid the mischiefs incident 
to crude and hasty measures of colonisation, Cap- 
tain Mundy was directed by his instructions to 
raise no fortifications, form no establishments on 
shore, and allow no settlers. Labuan is for the 
present a naval station, and no more ; but the time 
is at hand when it will become a second Singa- 
pore. Several merchants on the latter island have 
signified their intention to remove their establish- 
ments to Labuan, whenever the place shall be 
ready for their reception. & 

The gratification we feel in recording an event 
of such high promise in the history of commerce 
and civilisation is impaired by one unhappy cir- 
cumstance. The officers and crews of the two 
vessels suffered severely from sickness at La- 
buan ; and Messrs. Gordon and Airey, the com- 
mander of the Wolf and the master of the Iris, 
fell victims to the jungle-fever. The former dying 
on the island, was buried there ; the latter expired 
a few days after his return to Singapore. The 
sickness that prevailed among the sailors has been 
ascribed to their imprudent indulgence in the wild 
fruits of the island, to over-exertion and needless 
exposure, &c. These things may have done some 
hurt ; but the main cause of the sickness is too 
obvious to be mistaken. The ceremony of hoisting 
the flag was performed on a large space, cleared of 
jungle, and levelled expressly for that purpose. It 
is very strange that the officers engaged in the 



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GENERAL SALUBRITY OF LABUAN. 26l 

service should not have been aware of the infallible 
consequences of such a proceeding. In all tropical 
climates, deadly miasmata continue for a long while 
to hang over newly-made surfaces of earth, and 
malignant fevers surely await the white men who 
are rash enough to take up their abode on such 
spots before they have been sufficiently exposed to 
wind and sun. 

There is nothing, therefore, in the unfortunate 
incidents that have marked our taking possession 
of Labuan which should warrant a belief in the 
insalubrity of the island. Probably there is no spot 
within the tropics where European life is exposed 
to fewer risks from natural causes. The soil of the 
island is light -and porous ; it contains few or no 
morasses ; and its situation exposes it to the action 
of the prevailing winds, which sweep perpetually up 
and down those seas. For nine months of the year 
it is supplied abundantly with water ; and if during 
the other three months this article of primary ne- 
cessity be less plentiful, it is still in no worse a 
predicament than Singapore itself. On the north 
of the island there are several small runnels which 
would appear to be supplied by perennial sources ; 
and it will everywhere be easy to construct .tanks 
and reservoirs. 

Notwithstanding the lively and hopeful interest 
now so generally felt in this country with regard to 
our prospects in the far East, it is not perhaps su- 
perfluous to insist on the great advantages which 



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262 IMPORTANCE OF LABUAN. 

cannot but accrue to us from the step we have just 
taken. In attempting to estimate the national im- 
portance of our new possession, our conjectures are 
far more likely to fall short of the reality than to 
exceed it. For a great commercial people we have 
certainly exhibited no extraordinary sagacity or 
quickness of perception in this matter and others 
connected with it. Thirty years of stolid indiffer- 
ence to an immense fortune that lay at our feet 
cannot be thought of without humiliation. Hap- 
pily, the present generation of merchants, shipow- 
ners, and statesmen, appear to be heartily ashamed 
of the blunders and the supineness of their prede- 
cessors, and eager to seize the opportunities still 
open to them. The capabilities of-Labuan have 
been shrewdly scanned by those who can best turn 
them to good account, and their value is recognised 
in every great centre of trade throughout the em- 
pire. In the memorial presented last year to the 
then First Lord of the Treasury by the Directors 
of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce and Ma- 
nufactures, we find the following pregnant passage 
relating to Labuan : " It is most conveniently situ- 
ated for the prosecution and protection of our China 
trade ; it would serve as a point of refuge for our 
shipping in case of distress ; it would form a bul- 
wark in case of war, and a restraining terror to 
pirates. It would establish a centrical depot for 
trade, not only for the whole of the immense clus- 
ter of prolific islands in its own vicinity, but for 



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MANCHESTER MEMORIAL. 263 

the more distant marts of Siam and the Philippine 
Islands, and might open the unexplored regions of 
Japan. Possessing coals itself, it also, by its geo- 
graphical position, commands a boundless supply 
of that commodity from the mainland of Borneo ; 
whilst it is so happily situated as to be but a few 
miles out of the best track to China during the 
n.e. monsoon/' 

The memorialists pointedly complain of the ob- 
stacles that have hitherto prevented the extension 
and security of their trade in the Asiatic Archi- 
pelago, making it always a precarious source of 
gain, and often an occasion of heavy losses. Its 
uncertainty and irregularity, they say, have been 
" greatly aggravated by the total absence of Bri- 
tish influence throughout the whole of the islands 
stretching from the Straits of Malacca almost to 
our Australian possessions. Although the British 
Government has not yet thought fit to create 
an influence in this important quarter, yet has 
the Dutch Government been constantly and wisely 
vigilant in spreading its power there; and it 
is a source of regret to your memorialists that 
a field for enterprise so useful and so improvable 
should be abandoned to the grasp of a power of 
whose interpretation of treaties (as in the case of 
Java), British merchants have so much cause 
to complain, and whose general policy in those 
distant regions is marked by exclusiveness and 
rapacity/' 



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264 COMMERCIAL POLICY OF THE DUTCH. 

These very significant hints have not been dis- 
regarded by the present Administration. It seems 
bent on emulating the better part of the Dutch 
policy in the East, as the Dutch on their part have 
begun to relax the restrictive rigour of their com- 
mercial system in imitation of our example. They 
have seen in the prosperity of Singapore the ad- 
vantages which a total absence of commercial 
restrictions can confer on a small island, destitute 
of internal resources adequate for the support of 
its inhabitants, and situated at the embouchure of 
straits difficult of navigation. Profiting by the 
lesson, they have declared Macassar a free port 
from the first day of this year. In all sincerity we 
congratulate them on this wise beginning of re- 
formation. If they will fairly follow out the same 
principle to all its consequences, they will find in 
the long-run that the commercial rivalry which 
they seem to dread so intensely at our hands, is 
really the most fortunate thing that could befall 
them. Already they partially discern the erro- 
neous nature of the theories which have hitherto 
presided over their system in the East ; and the 
more they divest themselves of their narrow jea- 
lousies, the better will it be for themselves, as well 
as for us and others. There is no grosser fallacy 
than the old trading maxim, that what one gains 
another loses ; on the contrary, in proportion as 
traffic is freed from the factitious impediments with 
which ignorance and wilfulness have hitherto sur- 



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MR. BROOKE COMMISSIONER, ETC. 265 

rounded it, the comfortable truth will become ap- 
parent, that the gain of one is the gain of all. The 
Dutch may be assured that there is room enough 
for them and us in the vast regions which they 
have hitherto monopolised with such inadequate 
result. It is manifest that they need our co-opera- 
tion; for alone they have been unable to clear the 
waters round their colonies of pirates, or to deve- 
lope the great natural resources of the countless 
shores over which they affect to claim suzerainty. . 
We will help them to do the work which has proved 
too much for their unaided strength, and will seek 
no more than our fair share in the profits of the 
enterprise. We will respect their rights of pos- 
session wherever they can reasonably substantiate 
them, but elsewhere we will not suffer them any 
longer to play the dog in the manger. Let them 
pay us the moderate compliment to suppose that 
we too, like themselves, have grown wiser by expe- 
rience ; and while they laugh at our expense over 
the egregious folly of a colonial minister, who made 
them a present of Java, the most precious of all 
their possessions, let them reflect that a new ge- 
neration has arisen, which may not be quite so 
gullible as their fathers, or so magnanimously in- 
different to their own interests. 

In anticipation of the extended trade which is 
about to spring up in the Indian Archipelago, her 
Majesty's ministers have deemed it expedient to 
provide for its better regulation by the appoint- 

VOL. II. t 



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266 LATEST NEWS. 

ment of a general superintendent and protector. 
The measure once resolved on, it was impossible 
that they should waver for a moment in their choice 
of the individual to fill the office. The Queen's 
commission has gone out to Sarawak, appointing 
Mr. Brooke " Her Majesty's Commissioner and 
Consul-general to the Sultan and Independent 
Chiefs of Borneo." 

By the last overland mail (April 23d), accounts 
have been received from Mr. Brooke, dated Pen- 
ang, 5th March. He was there awaiting the arri- 
val of Bear-admiral Inglefield in H.M.S. Vernon, 
and was to return with that officer to Labuan and 
Borneo Proper. Lieutenant Heath of H. M. S. 
Wolf had transmitted to Bear-admiral Sir Thomas 
Cochrane a most favourable report from Labuan, 
happily confirming the remarks we have made 
above on the general salubrity of the island. The 
subtle fever -fiend that had been so incautiously 
roused from his slumbers in the jungle, had spent 
his strength in the first onset, and had left the 
officers and men of the Wolf unmolested, and in 
the enjoyment of sound health. The news from 
the mainland of Borneo was no less satisfactory. 



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APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX. 



No.L 



Treaty between His Britannic Majesty and the 
King of the Netherlands, respecting Territory 
and Commerce in the East Indies. Signed at 
London, March 17, 1824. 

In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity. 

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and his Majesty the King of 
the Netherlands, desiring to place upon a footing mu- 
tually beneficial their respective possessions and the com- 
merce of their subjects in the East Indies, so that the 
welfare and prosperity of both nations may be promoted 
in all time to come, without those differences and jea- 
lousies which have, in former times, interrupted the har- 
mony which ought always to subsist between them ? and 
being anxious that all occasions of misunderstanding be- 
tween their respective agents may be, as much as pos- 
sible, prevented; and in order to determine certain 
questions which have occurred in the execution of the 
Convention made at London on the 13th of August, 
1814, in so far as it respects the possessions of hia Ne- 
therland Majesty in the East, have nominated their Pleni- 
potentiaries, that is to say : 



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270 TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND AND 

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable George Can- 
ning, a member of his said Majesty's most honourable Privy 
Council, a member of Parliament, and his said Majesty's 
principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; — and 
the Right Honourable Charles Watkin Williams Wynn, 
a member of his said Majesty's most honourable Privy 
Council, a member of Parliament, Lieutenant-Colonel Com- 
mandant of the Montgomeryshire Regiment of Yeomanry 
Cavalry, and President of his said Majesty's Board of Com- 
missioners for the affairs of India : 

And his Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Baron 
Henry Fagel, member of the Equestrian Corps of the Pro- 
vince of Holland, Counsellor of State, Knight Grand Cross 
of the Royal Order of the Belgic Lion, and of the Royal 
Guelphic Order, and Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of his said Majesty to his Majesty the King of 
Great Britain ; and Anton Reinhard Falck, Commander of 
the Royal Order of the Belgic Lion, and his said Majesty's 
Minister of the Department of Public Instruction, National 
Industry, and Colonies : 

Who, aTter having mutually communicated their full 
powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the 
following Articles. 

Article I. The high contracting parties engage to 
admit the subjects of each other to trade with their respec- 
tive possessions in the Eastern Archipelago, and on the 
continent of India, and in Ceylon, upon the footing of the 
most favoured nation ; their respective subjects conforming 
themselves to the local regulations of each settlement. 

ARTrcLE II. The subjects and vessels of one nation 
shall not pay, upon importation or exportation, at the ports 
of the other in the Eastern Seas, any duty at a rate beyond 



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Appendix 1.] THE NETHERLANDS. 271 

the double of that at which the subjects and vessels of the 
nation to which the port belongs are charged. 

The duties paid on exports or imports at a British 
port on the continent of India, or in Ceylon, on Dutch 
bottoms, shall be arranged so as in no case to be charged 
at more than double the amount of the duties paid by Bri- 
tish subjects, and on British bottoms. 

In regard to any article upon which no duty is imposed, 
when imported or exported by the subjects or on the ves- 
sels of the nation to which the port belongs, the duty 
charged upon the subjects or vessels of the other shall in 
no case exceed six per cent. 

Article III. The high contracting parties engage 
that no treaty hereafter made by either, with any native 
power in the Eastern Seas, shall contain any article tending, 
either expressly or by the imposition of unequal duties, to 
exclude the trade of the other party from the ports of such 
native power : and that if, in any treaty now existing on 
either part, any article to that effect has been admitted, 
such article shall be abrogated upon the conclusion of the 
present treaty. 

It is understood that before the conclusion of the pre- 
sent treaty, communication has been made by each of the 
contracting parties to the other of all treaties or engage- 
ments subsisting between each of them respectively and 
any native power in the Eastern. Seas ;. and that the like 
communication shall be made of all such treaties concluded 
by them respectively hereafter. 

Article IV. Their Britannic and Netherland Majes- 
ties engage to give strict orders as well to their civil and 
military authorities as to their ships of war, to respect the 
freedom of trade, established by Articles I., II., and III. ; 
and in no case to impede a free communication of the 
natives in the Eastern Archipelago with the ports of the 



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272 TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND AND 

two governments respectively, or of the subjects of the two 
governments with the ports belonging to native powers. 

Article V. Their Britannic and Netherland Majes- 
ties in like manner engage to concur effectually in repress- 
ing piracy in those seas : they will not grant either asylum 
or protection to vessels engaged in piracy, and they will in 
no case permit the ships or merchandise captured by such 
vessels to be introduced, deposited, or sold in any of their 



Article VI. It is agreed that orders shall be given 
by the two governments to their officers and agents in the 
East, not to form any new settlement on any of the islands 
in the Eastern Seas, without previous authority from their 
respective governments in Europe. 

Article VII. The Molucca islands, and especially 
Amboyna, Banda, Ternate, and their immediate dependen- 
cies, are excepted from the operation of the L, II., III., 
and IV. Articles, until the Netherland government shall 
think fit to abandon the monopoly of spices ; but if the 
said government shall at any time previous to such aban- 
donment of the monopoly allow the subjects of any power 
other than a native Asiatic power to carry on any com- 
mercial intercourse with the said islands, the subjects of 
his Britannic Majesty shall be admitted to such intercourse 
upon a footing precisely similar. 

Article VIII. His Netherland Majesty cedes to his 
Britannic Majesty all his establishments on the continent 
of India ; and renounces all privileges and exemptions en- 
joyed or claimed in virtue of those establishments. 

Article IX. The factory of Fort Marlborough, and 
all the English possessions on the island of Sumatra, are 
hereby ceded to his Netherland Majesty: and his Britannic 
Majesty further engages that no British settlement shall 
be formed on that island, nor any treaty concluded by 



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Appendix I.] THE NETHERLANDS. 273 

British authority with any native prince, chief, or state 
therein. 

Article X. The town and fort of Malacca, and its 
dependencies, are hereby ceded to his Britannic Majesty ; 
and his Netherland Majesty engages for himself and his 
subjects never to form any establishment on any part of 
the peninsula of Malacca, or to conclude any treaty with 
any native prince, chief, or state therein. 

Article XI. His Britannic Majesty withdraws the 
objections which have been made to the occupation of 
the island of Billiton and its dependencies by the agents 
of the Netherland government. 

Article XII. His Netherland Majesty withdraws 
the objections which have been made to the occupation 
of the island of Singapore by the subjects of his Britannic 
Majesty. 

His Britannic Majesty, however, engages that no Bri- 
tish establishment shall be made on the Carimon Isles, or 
on the islands of Battam, Bintang, Lingin, or any of the 
other islands south of the Straits of Singapore, nor any 
treaty concluded by British authority with the chiefs of 
those islands. 

Article XIII. All the colonies, possessions, and 
establishments which are ceded by the preceding articles 
shall be delivered up to the officers of the respective sove- 
reigns on the 1st of March, 1825. The fortifications shall 
remain in the state in which they shall be at the period 
of the notification of this treaty in India ; but no claim 
shall be made on either side for ordnance, or stores of any 
description, either left or removed by the ceding power, 
nor for any arrears of revenue, or any charge of adminis- 
tration whatever. 

Article XIV. All the inhabitants of the territories 
hereby ceded shall enjoy, for a period of six years from 



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274 TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND AND 

the date of the ratification of the present treaty, the 
liberty of disposing as they please of their property, and 
of transporting themselves, without let or hindrance, to 
any country to which they wish to remove. 

Article XV. The high contracting parties agree 
that none of the territories or establishments mentioned 
in Articles VIII., IX., X., XL, and XII., shall be, at 
any time, transferred to any other power. In case of any 
of the said possessions being abandoned by one of the pre- 
sent contracting parties, the right of occupation thereof 
shall immediately pass to the other. 

Article XVI. It is agreed that all accounts and 
reclamations arising out of the restoration of Java and 
other possessions to the officers of his Netherland Majesty 
in the East Indies, — as well those which were the sub- 
ject of a Convention made at Java on the 24th of June, 
1817, between the commissioners of the two nations, as all 
others, shall be finally and completely closed and satisfied 
on the payment of the sum of one hundred thousand 
pounds, sterling money, to be made in London, on the 
part of the Netherlands, before the expiration of the year 
1825. 

Article XVII. The present treaty shall be ratified, 
and the ratifications exchanged at London within three 
months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible. 

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries 
have signed the same, and affixed thereunto the seals of 
their arms. 

Done at London, the seventeenth day of March, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty-four. 

George Canning. 

Charles Watkin Williams Wtnn. 



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Appendix I.] THE NETHERLANDS. 275 

Note addressed by the British Plenipotentiaries to the 
Plenipotentiaries of the Netherlands. 

London, March 17, 1824. 

In proceeding to the signature of the Treaty which 
has been agreed upon, the Plenipotentiaries of his Bri- 
tannic Majesty have great satisfaction in recording their 
Sense of the friendly and liberal spirit which has been 
evinced by their excellencies the plenipotentiaries of his 
Netherland Majesty ; and their conviction that there is, on 
both sides, an equal disposition to carry into effect * with 
sincerity and good faith, the stipulations of the treaty in 
the sense in which they have \>een negotiated. 

The differences which gave rise to the present discus- 
sion are such as it is difficult to adjust by formal stipula- 
tion : consisting, in great part, of jealousies and suspicions, 
and arising out of the acts of subordinate agents, they 
can only be removed by a frank declaration of intention, 
and a mutual understanding as to principles between the 
governments themselves. 

The disavowal of the proceedings whereby the exe- 
cution of the Convention of August 1814 was retarded, 
must have satisfied their" excellencies the Netherland pleni- 
potentiaries of the scrupulous regard with which England 
always fulfils her engagements. 

The British plenipotentiaries record, with sincere plea- 
sure, the solemn disavowal on the part of the Nether- 
land government, of any design to aim either at political 
supremacy or at commercial monopoly in the Eastern 
Archipelago* They willingly acknowledge the readiness 
with which the Netherland plenipotentiaries have entered 
into stipulations calculated to promote the most perfect 
freedom of trade between the subjects of the two crowns, 
and their respective dependencies in that part of the world. 



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276 TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND AND 

The undersigned are authorised to express the full con- 
currence of his Britannic Majesty in the enlightened views 
of his Majesty the King of the Netherlands. 

Aware of the difficulty of adapting, at once, to a long- 
established system of monopoly, the principles of commer- 
cial policy which are now laid down, the undersigned have 
been authorised to consent to the exception of the Molucca 
Islands from the general stipulation for freedom of trade- 
contained in the treaty* They trust, however, that as 
the necessity for this exception is occasioned solely by the 
difficulty of abrogating, at the present moment, the mono- 
poly of spices, its operation will be strictly limited by that 
necessity. 

The British plenipotentiaries understand the term Mo- 
luccas as applicable to that cluster of islands which has 
Celebes to the westward, New Guinea to the eastward, and 
Timor to the southward ; but that these three islands are 
not comprehended in the exception ; nor would it have in- 
cluded Ceram, if the situation of that island, in reference 
to the two principal spice isles, Amboyna and Banda, had 
not required a prohibition of intercourse with it so long as 
the monopoly of spices shall be maintained. 

The territorial exchanges which have been thought exr 
pedient for avoiding a collision of interests render it in- 
cumbent upon the plenipotentiaries of his Britannic Majesty 
to make, and to require, some explanations with respect to 
the dependents and allies of England in the island from 
which she is about to withdraw. 

A treaty concluded in the year 1819, by British agents, 
with the King of Acheen, is incompatible with the 3d 
article of the present treaty. The British plenipotentiaries 
therefore undertake, that the treaty with Acheen shall, as 
soon as possible, be modified into a simple arrangement for 
the hospitable reception of British vessels and subjects in 



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Appendix I.] THE NETHERLANDS. 277 

the port of Acheen. But as some of the provisions of that 
treaty (which has been communicated to the Netherland 
plenipotentiaries) will be conducive to the general interests 
of Europeans established in the Eastern Seas, they trust 
that the Netherland government will take measures for 
securing the benefit of those provisions. And they express 
their confidence, that no measures hostile to the Xing of 
Acheen will be adopted by the new possessor of Fort 
Marlborough. 

It is no less the duty of the British plenipotentiaries to 
recommend to the friendly and paternal protection of the 
Netherland government the interests of the natives and 
settlers subject to the ancient factory of England at Ben- 
coolen. 

This appeal is the more necessary, because, so lately as 
the year 1818, treaties were made with the native chiefs, 
by which their situation was much improved. The system 
of forced cultivation and delivery of pepper was abolished ; 
encouragement was given to the cultivation of rice ; the 
relations between the cultivating classes and the chiefs of 
the districts were adjusted ; the property in the soil was 
recognised in those chiefs; and all interference in the 
detailed management of the interior was withdrawn, by 
removing the European residents from the out-stations, 
and substituting in their room native officers. All these 
measures were calculated greatly to promote the interests 
of the native inhabitants. 

In recommending these interests to the care of the 
Netherland government, the undersigned request the ple- 
nipotentiaries of his Netherland Majesty to assure their 
government that a corresponding attention will be paid, 
on the part of the British authorities, to the inhabitants 
of Malacca and the other Netherland settlements which 
are transferred to Great Britain. 



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278 TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND AND 

In conclusion, the plenipotentiaries of bis Britannic 
Majesty congratulate their excellencies the Netherland ple- 
nipotentiaries upon the happy termination of their con- 
ferences. They feel assured that, under the arrangement 
which is now concluded, the commerce of both nations will 
flourish, and that the two allies will preserve inviolate in 
Asia, no less than in Europe, the friendship which has, 
from old times, subsisted between them. The disputes 
being now ended, which, during two centuries, have occa- 
sionally produced irritation, there will henceforward be no 
rivalry between the English and Dutch nations in the East, 
except for the more effectual establishment of those prin- 
ciple^ of liberal policy which both have this day asserted 
in the face of the world. 

The undersigned request their excellencies the pleni- 
potentiaries of his Netherland Majesty will accept the 
assurances of their distinguished consideration. 
George Canning. 
Charles Watkin Williams Wynn. 



Reply of the Netherland Plenipotentiaries to the Note of 
the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain. 

London, March 17, 1824. 

The undersigned, plenipotentiaries of his Majesty the 
Xing of the Netherlands, have found in the note which is 
just delivered to them by their excellencies the British 
plenipotentiaries, a faithful recapitulation of the communi- 
cations which had taken place at the time when circum- 
stances, independent of the will of the negotiators, caused 
a suspension of their conferences. 

Summoned to resume a work, the completion of which 
has ever been desired with equal sincerity by both parties, 



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Appendix I.] THE NETHERLANDS. 279 

the undersigned have not failed to recognise in their co- 
labourers in this work that spirit of equity and concilia- 
tion which facilitates the arrangement of the most compli- 
cated questions, and to which they cannot do justice at a 
time more fitting than that which is about to sanction, by 
the signature of a formal treaty, the resolutions, adopted 
after a most strict examination, as eminently useful for the 
maintenance of a good understanding even among the in- 
ferior agents of the contracting powers. 

This essential aim and principal tendency of the treaty 
is evident to all who read its different articles with atten- 
tion. What is therein expressly stipulated ought to suffice 
for the removal, by common consent, of all uncertainty 
which might present itself in the sequel. However, as the 
British plenipotentiaries have considered it necessary to 
enter into some further details, the undersigned, who, on 
their part, are sensible of the importance of leaving nothing 
doubtful in so important a matter, have no difficulty in 
following them through these details, and in supplying, by 
a concise display of their view of the subject, the answer 
which is due from them to the aforesaid note of their ex- 
cellencies. 

The 7th article contains an exception to the general 
principle of liberty of commerce. The necessity of that 
exception, already admitted by England in the conferences 
of 1820, rests upon the existence of the system which 
respects the exclusive trade in spice. Should the determi- 
nations of the government of the Netherlands lead to the 
abandonment of that system, the rights of free trade will 
be immediately restored, and the whole of that Archipe- 
lago, which has been very justly described as comprised 
between Celebes, Timor, and New Guinea, will be open to 
all lawful speculations, on the footing to be established by 
local ordinances, and, so far as particularly concerns the 



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280 TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND AND 

subjects of his Britannic Majesty, in conformity with the 
grounds sanctioned by the treaty for all the Asiatic pos- 
sessions of the two contracting powers. 

On the other hand, so long as the exception in question 
remains in force, the ships which traverse the Moluccas 
must refrain from touching at any ports but those where- 
of the description has been officially communicated to the 
maritime powers some years back ; except in cases of dis- 
tress, in which it is superfluous to add, that they will find 
in all places where the flag of the Netherlands may be 
flying those good offices and succours which are due to 
suffering humanity. 

If the government of Great Britain conceives it to be a 
real advantage, that by disengaging itself, according to the 
principles sanctioned by the treaty which is about to be 
signed, from the connexions which were formed by its 
agents four or five years ago in the kingdom of Acheen, it 
secures, by some new clause, the hospitable reception of 
British vessels and subjects in the ports of that kingdom \ 
the undersigned hesitate not to declare, that, on their part, 
they do not see any difficulty in it, and conceive that they 
may assert, at the same time, that their government will 
apply itself, without delay, to regulate its relations with 
Acheen in such a manner, that that state, without losing 
anything of its independence, may offer both to the sailor 
and the merchant that constant security which can only 
be established by the moderate exercise of European in- 
fluence. 

In support of the information contained in the last 
note of the British plenipotentiaries, on the subject of 
Bencoolen, their excellencies have communicated to the 
undersigned the two conventions respectively signed on 
the 23d of May and the 4th of July, 1818, by the lieu- 
tenant-governor of that establishment, on the one side, 



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Appendix I.] THE NETHERLANDS. 281 

and by the chiefs of some neighbouring tribes, on the 
other. They have likewise communicated a despatch of 
the governor-general in council, dated Fort William, the 
9th of May, 1823, and according to which the British 
government has abolished at Fort Marlborough the mono- 
poly of pepper, encouraged the cultivation of rice, and 
placed on a firm and uniform footing the relations of the 
different classes of natives, as well among themselves as 
with their chiefs. But inasmuch as the undersigned are 
not wrong in supposing that the object of these arrange- 
ments has been the security of the agricultural prosperity 
of the colony, and the removal of the vexations which often 
result from the immediate contact of the native population 
with the subordinate authorities of a foreign government, 
they experience great satisfaction in saying, that, far from 
having cause to dread retroactive measures, the individuals 
interested in the existing order of things may, on the con- 
trary, cherish the hope that the new government will 
respect their acquired rights and their welfare ; and, what 
the undersigned are above all things desirous to guarantee, 
that it will cause the articles of the above-mentioned con- 
ventions to be observed, on the faith of which the inhabit- 
ants of Pasummah, Ulu Manna, and the other colonists in 
the interior, have recognised the authority, or accepted 
the protection, of the British East India Company ; saving, 
however, the power of substituting, with the full consent 
of the parties interested, other analogous conditions, if cir- 
cumstances should render a change necessary. 

With respect to the equitable and benign intentions of 
the British government towards the inhabitants of Ma- 
lacca, and the other Dutch establishments ceded by the 
treaty, the plenipotentiaries of his Majesty the King of 
the Netherlands accept the assurance thereof with unli- 
mited confidence; and the same sentiment prevents them 

VOL. II. V 



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282 TREATY WITH THE NETHERLANDS. 

from insisting that the orders and instructions which shall 
be addressed to the English authorities in India, relative 
to the surrender of Fort Marlborough, and its dependen- 
cies, should be conceived in such clear, precise, and positive 
terms, that no cause of uncertainty, or any pretext for 
delay, may be discovered in them : — being persuaded that 
the British plenipotentiaries, after having accomplished 
their labours with so much moderation and equity, will 
take care that the result of their common exertions be not 
compromised by any regard to subordinate interests and 
secondary considerations. This result the British pleni- 
potentiaries themselves have described in their last note ; 
and it only remains for the undersigned to congratulate 
themselves on. having contributed thereto, and to unite 
their wishes with those of their excellencies, that their 
respective agents in their Asiatic possessions may ever 
shew themselves sensible of the duties which two friendly 
nations, animated with truly liberal views, have to fulfil, 
both with reference to each other, and also towards the 
natives whom the course of events or treaties have placed 
under their influence. 

The undersigned avail themselves of this opportunity 
of renewing to their excellencies the British plenipoten- 
tiaries the assurance of their most distinguished consider- 
ation. 

H. Fagel. 

A. R. Falck. 



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No. II. 

Official Letters. 

From the Resident Councillor at Singapore to the Honour- 
able the Acting Governor of Prince of Wales Island, 
Singapore, and Malacca. 

Singapore, 17th February, 1843. 

Sir, — I esteem it my duty to transmit a copy of a depo- 
sition taken by me relative to an act of piracy perpetrated 
near Poolow Tingie. There is no doubt whatever that, 
unless some protection is afforded to the trading boats 
from Cochin China, the loss of life and plunder of property 
will follow to the same extent, if not more so, than during 
the past season* On this important subject I have had 
occasion to write officially. 

It is to be feared the Malays at Poolow Tingie are 
deeply implicated in the acts of piracy which are annually 
committed in that proximity. 

I have, &c. 

T. Church, 

Resident Councillor. 

Hoy, Nakodah of a Cochin China tope, of thirty-five 
coyans, left Cochin China eleven days since, bound for 
Singapore, with a cargo consisting of thirty-five coyans 
of rice, two peculs of raw silk, 600 mats, three pigs. Our 
crew consisted of fifteen hands. We had no arms of any 
kind on board. Six days after having left Cochin China 
we reached near Poolow Tingie, when we fell in with five 



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284 OFFICIAL LETTERS. 

sampans, having on board about thirty Malays ; the Malays 

were armed with spears, creeses, swords, and muskets. 

We were boarded by them, and two of our number killed. 

They took the silk and a small part of the rice, and then 

scuttled our prau. Myself and twelve companions were 

taken by the pirates to Poolow Tingie, where they reside 

at this season of the year. We were then allowed to take 

to our sampans, with strict injunctions not to proceed to 

Singapore ; we, however, were compelled to come here by 

the wind and current. We were five days without food 

and water . 

S. Garling, 

Acting Governor. 
Before me, 

T. Church, 

Resident Councillor at Singapore, 

17th February, 1843. 



Admiralty, 13th October, 1843. 
Sir, — Having laid before my Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty your letter of the 26th June, 1843, 
No. 164, with its enclosure from Captain the Honourable 
Henry Keppel, of the Dido, reporting the repulse of the 
attacks of certain piratical praus, on two occasions, by 
Lieut. F. W. Horton, and the officers and men employed 
under him, in three boats of the Dido, I am commanded 
to acquaint you that their Lordships are satisfied with the 
manner in which Lieutenant Horton, and the officers and 
men employed with him, repelled the attack made upon 
them. 

John Barhow. 
Vice- Admiral Sir Wm. Parker, G.C.B. 
Singapore. 



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Appendix II.] OFFICIAL LETTERS. 285 

Admiralty, 16th October, 1848. 

Sir, — Having laid before my Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty your letter of the 13th of July, 1843, No. 
183, with its enclosures, from Captain the Honourable 
Henry Keppel, of the Dido, reporting the spirited con- 
duct of Lieutenant Hunt, and the officers, seamen, and 
marines of that ship, who accompanied him in a native- 
built boat, which was attacked by two piratical praus, 
off Cape Datu, in the island of Borneo; also detailing 
the proceedings of the boats of the Dido, with ninety-five 
officers and men, who were detached, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Wilmot Horton, to the river Sarebus, 
where they effected the destruction of certain forts, and 
three settlements of pirates; I am commanded to ac- 
quaint you that their Lordships are pleased to express 
their approbation of the gallant and spirited conduct of 
the officers and men employed on these occasions in 
executing the judicious arrangements made by Captain 
KeppeL 

John Babbow, 
Vice- Admiral Sir Wm. Parkeb, G.C.B. 
Singapore. 



Cornwallis, in Madras Roads, 
10th May, 1844. A 

Sir, — I have much pleasure in transmitting here- 
with the copies of two letters which I have received from 
the Secretary of the Admiralty, conveying their Lordships* 
approbation of the gallant and spirited conduct of the 
officers and men of the Dido, who were employed in the 
boats of that ship, on the coast and rivers of Borneo. 



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286 OFFICIAL LETTERS. 

And I desire you will communicate the same to the 
officers and men accordingly. 

I am, Sir, your very humble servant, 

W. Parkrb, Viee-Admiral. 
Captain the Hon. Henry Keppel, 
Her Majesty's Ship Dido, 



From the Governor of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore, 
and Malacca, to Captain J. R. Scott, commanding the 
Hon* East India Company's steamer Phlegethon. 

Singapore, 13th September, 1844. 

Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of this date, enclosing the copy of a com- 
munication to your address, from Captain the Honourable 
Henry Keppel, commander of her Majesty's ship Dido, 
expressing the high sense he entertains of your zeal and 
attention, and the service rendered by the Honourable 
East India Company's steamer Phlegethon during the 
recent operations on the coast of Borneo, which I will not 
fail to submit to the supreme government. 

That success would attend the expedition against the 
pirates on the n.w. coast of Borneo was to be antici- 
pated, from the approved experience and acknowledged 
gallantfy of your commander, Captain the Honourable 
Henry Keppel; but such an unprecedented result as the 
destruction of the main strongholds of men who have 
been the scourge of these seas for years past, and whose 
courage and cruelties are proverbial, could only have been 
effected by the most untiring zeal, energy, and enterprise 
from all concerned; more especially when it is remem- 



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Appendix II.] OFFICIAL LETTERS. 287 

bered that these strongholds were situated between 50 
and 100 miles up a difficult river, in which every obstacle 
was thrown, with a view of retarding your progress $ and 
that the pirates were commanded by their chieftains, Seriff 
Sahib andSeriffMulak. 

It affords me the highest gratification to notice here 
what will be specially laid before the supreme govern- 
ment, the honourable testimony borne to the determined 
valour of Mr, Coverley, first officer, and Mr. Simson, 
second officer of the Phlegethon, by Captain the Honour- 
able Henry Keppel, who observes, in his public despatch, 
when speaking of the gallant conduct of all engaged, and 
the creditable and efficient state of the Phlegethon's boats, 
that these officers were the two first on the heights of 
Undop, in leading to which the first lieutenant of the 
Dido was killed. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

W. J. BUTTRRWORTH, 

Governor of P. W. Island, Singapore, and Malacca. 



Admiralty, February 28th, 1846. 
Sir, — I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty to acquaint you, that they have received 
with much satisfaction your letter detailing the measures 
you had taken for the suppression of piracy on the coast 
of Borneo and up the Sakarran river. Their Lordships 
desire also to express their approbation at the gallantry 
and perseverance displayed by the officers, seamen, and 
marines under your orders, in overcoming the force and 
numbers opposed to them, and the many obstacles they 
had to contend with ; and my Lords desire that you will, 



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288 OFFICIAL LETTERS. 

as far as may be in your power, convey to those employed 
under you in this enterprise the expression of their Lord- 
ships 9 satisfaction. My Lords, however, have to lament 
the loss on this occasion of a promising and gallant 
officer, Lieutenant Wade, R.N., and also that of Mr. 
Steward, who so generously lent his valuable services to 
the expedition; a loss, however, which their Lordships 
think might have been still more severe but for the dis- 
cretion and the judicious conduct of those conducting the 
attack. 

W. A. B. Hamilton. 
Captain the Hon. Henrt Kbppel. 



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No. III. 
Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane** Despatches. 

From the London Gazette, Friday, Nov. 28th, 1845. 

Admiralty, Nov. 27th, 1845. 
Despatches have been received at this office from 
Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane, C.B., Commander- 
in-chief of her Majesty's ships and vessels on the East 
India Station, of which the following are copies or ex- 
tracts : — 

Agincourt, off Pulo Laboan, coast of Borneo, 
August 13th, 1845. 

Sir, — I arrived off the river Brune (Borneo Proper) 
on the 6th inst. 

If their Lordships will be good enough to refer to a 
paragraph towards the conclusion of the memorandum ad- 
dressed to me by Mr. Brooke, under date the 3d of July, 
1845, they will find a statement of two natives of India 
having been detained as slaves in the capital itself for two 
years, continuing under captivity in the presence of the 
British men-of-war, and from which slavery they made 
their escape on board the Hon. East India Company's 
steam-vessel Phlegethon on her last visit there, only a few 
weeks since. 

Under such a glaring disregard of the understanding 
entered into with the Sultan in respect of slavery, I felt, in 
conjunction with Mr. Brooke, that it would not be right to 
permit this transaction to pass without, in the first instance, 
holding the Sultan responsible for it ; and Pangeran Bedu- 



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290 ADMIRAL COCHRANE'S 

rudeen having stated that Pangeran Usop was the real of- 
fender, every thing should be kept quiet until my arrival in 
the capital ; on the following day I went with the steamers 
to visit this singular capital, or what is called city, being a 
miserable collection of bamboo-houses, elevated upon piles, 
surrounded by water, except at low tide, when under many 
of them you percave the bare mud ; the poverty of the 
' buildings being singularly and inexplicably contrasted with 
the manners, dresses, and deportment of the higher orders. 

I visited the Sultan with all due ceremony, and, by 
previous understanding with the Rajah Muda Hassin and 
his brother Bedurudeen, the visit was entirely complimen- 
tary ; but after my departure, on the same evening, and 
following morning, Mr. Brooke had several meetings with 
those persons. The Sultan stated he was quite ready to 
punish Pangeran Usop if I would afford my assistance in 
accomplishing it. It appeared that Usop (I suppose from 
conscious guilt) concluded he was the object sought, and 
had, on the day of my visit, told the Sultan that if called on 
to answer on the score of piracy, he would defend himself 
to the last. 

In answer to my address to the Sultan, I received the 
accompanying documents (Nos. 2 and 3), one calling for 
assistance, the other for personal protection ; a subaltern's 
guard was accordingly sent to the Sultan's residence ; and 
it was settled, through Mr. Brooke, that the Sultan should 
call on Usop to present himself before him, unarmed, to 
answer for his conduct, and if he did not do so, his resi- 
dence was to be attacked. 

The Sultan's commands were accordingly conveyed to 
him, which not having been replied to within a given time, 
a shot was fired over his house, to which he promptly re- 
plied by a salvo from his battery, when a fire in earnest was 
opened upon him, and a few minutes sent him and all his 



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Appendix III.] DESPATCHES. 291 

adherents off to the woods, and the marines landed and 
took possession of his house, where, among other things, 
twenty handsome brass guns, of various calibre, were found, 
and 150 half-barrels of gunpowder. 

The guns the Sultan requested me to keep ; but re- 
serving two of the smallest, for the purpose of sale, to pro- 
duce funds to remunerate the two natives (now serving 
on board the Pluto) for their four years* captivity, I sent 
the remainder to the Sultan, with a message, through Mr, 
Brooke, to say, that we never accepted any remuneration 
for the protection of friends who were disposed faithfully 
to carry out the engagements they had entered into, 

I learn from Mr. Brooke, who has been in communi- 
cation with Muda Hassin and his brother since the flight 
of Usop and destruction of his property, that the occur- 
rence has given great confidence to the well-disposed party, 
and that it will equally depress Usop's adherents in the 
town, of whom there were not a few ; and I look for a 
double result from his punishment — namely, that while it 
assures the legitimate government of all proper support, 
they will equally perceive the rod that hangs over them, 
should they be found wanting in their own conduct, 
I have, &c. 

Thomas Cochrane, 
Rear- Admiral and Commander-in-Chief. 

To the Secretary of the Admiralty, London. 



Aginconrt, at Sea, in lat. 8° 14' N., long. 116° 4' E. 
August 26th, 1845. 

Sir, — Following out the intentions referred to in my 
despatch from Laboan (No. 142), of the 13th of August, I 



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292 ADMIRAL COCHRANE'S 

left that anchorage on the 15th instant, and reached the 
northern end of Borneo on the 17th. 

Having heard from various sources that Scheriff Os- 
man had, for the last twelvemonth, been making prepara- 
tions against a probable attack, that he had strongly for- 
tified one of the branches of a river in Maloodoo Bay, and 
was of a character, and supported by resolute adherents, not 
likely to yield without a sharp struggle, I made corre- 
sponding arrangements for attack ; and having anchored the 
Agincourt and frigates in a safe position, in the hitherto 
little-known fine bay of Maloodoo, I hoisted my flag on 
board the Vixen steam sloop, and, attended by the Cruiser 
and Wolverine brigs, and the Hon. East India Company's 
steam vessels Pluto and Nemesis, proceeded to the head of 
the bay, carrying deep water until within a couple of miles 
of the river's mouth, when the Vixen and brigs were 
obliged to anchor, and not far within them the Pluto, draw- 
ing only six feet, grounded on the bar. 

It being hopeless to attempt to make a further pro- 
gress in these small vessels, I directed Captain Talbot, 
assisted by Acting Captain Lyster, and Commanders 
Fanshawe and Clifford, to take command of the gun and 
other boats of the squadron, filled with as many marines 
and small-arm men as they could with propriety carry, and 
proceed up that branch of the Maloodoo stated by the 
pilots to be in the occupation of Scheriff Osman; and 
should their statements prove correct, to ascertain as far 
as possible the strength of his position and amount of 
force, either attacking the Scheriff on his refusal to sur- 
render, should he feel equal to the enterprise, or falling 
back to some suitable position, while he communicated 
with me in the event of his not considering his force suffi- 
cient to guarantee success. 

The accompanying letter and report from Captain 



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Appendix III.] DESPATCHES. 293 

Talbot will convey to their Lordships a gratifying narra- 
tion of his success, and prove the soundness of my judg- 
ment in selecting this officer for the important duty 
confided to him. 

Their Lordships will not fail to unite with me in deep 
regret at the heavy loss we have incurred ; but when the 
great strength of the position is referred to, and that the 
force was for one hour exposed to the steadily sustained 
fire of eleven heavy guns, within little more than 200 yards 
of our own position, it is rather astonishing than other- 
wise, and a source of thankf ulness, that the casualties were 
not more numerous. 

Their Lordships will not fail to notice the valorous 
conduct of Acting Captain Lyster, and those immediately 
under him, upon this occasion ; who, undaunted by the fire 
with which they were assailed, steadily worked at a remark- 
ably well-constructed boom for above an hour before he 
could effect an opening, and on the success of whose exer- 
tions mainly depended the advance of the force, who, in 
ignorance of any other manner of approaching the forts 
than by the river, could not be brought forward until this 
object was accomplished; and while I feel persuaded 
their Lordships will be fully alive to such meritorious 
conduct, I deeply lament that death has removed from 
their Lordships' power of reward that promising young 
officer, Mr. Leonard Gibbard, mate of the Wolverine, 
who bravely worked by Captain Lyster's side ; the wound 
he received on that occasion having, unfortunately for 
his country and his friends, proved fatal on the following 
day. 

I sent up the same evening a small detachment of 

' gun-boats, under Commander Giffard, to burn such pra- 

hues and boats, and parts of the forts or town, as might 

have remained not completely destroyed, and to render 



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394 ADMIRAL COCHRANE'S 

unserviceable any iron guns, and to bring down with him 
any brass ordnance that might be there. 

Two or three chiefs are known to have fallen on the 
present occasion, and there is every reason to believe that 
Scheriff Osman, so formidable to all the neighbouring 
country, and whose valour was worthy of a better cause, is 
among the number slain ; at least I have certain informa- 
tion that he was carried off badly wounded; but whether 
dead or living, I consider his influence to be entirely anni- 
hilated, and his confederacy with various piratical chiefs in 
the Archipelago broken up ; for his power as much depended 
upon his being the encourager of other piratical tribes, and 
their supplier with goods in exchange for slaves, as in the 
force naturally at his command. I may add that, among 
many other articles of European workmanship, a bell be- 
longing to the ship Gruilhelm Ludwig, of Bremen, was 
found in the town. This vessel was supposed to have been 
wrecked on the Grarsi Isles, about October or November 
last, but nothing has been heard of the crew. 

I have, &c. 

Thomas Cochrane, 
Rear- Admiral and Commander-in-Chief. 

To the Secretary of the Admiralty, London. 



Her Majesty's Steam-vessel Vixen, Maloodoo Bay, 
August 20th, 1845. 

Sir, — I have to report the proceedings of the ex- 
pedition you did me the honour to place under my com- 
mand. 

Your Excellency's flag having been flying on board 
the Vixen, you are aware of its progress to the anchorage 



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Appendix III] DESPATCHES. 295 

at the head of the Maloodoo Bay ; I commence, therefore* 
the details from that period. 

The force, consisting of 530 seamen and marines (the 
details of which I annex), conveyed in 24 boats, of which 
nine were gun-boats, left the Vixen at 3 o'clock p.m. on 
the 18th instant, and after some little difficulty on hitting 
on the channel, was anchored off the mouth of the Songy- 
basar a little after sunset. Here we were joined by a boat 
from the Pluto, carrying Agincourt's field-piece. 

The tide serving, about 11 o'clock p.m. weighed, and 
passing the bar, anchored within it. At daylight on the 
19th we proceeded up the river in two divisions; after 
proceeding about two miles, I was informed by the Brune 
pilots we were nearing the town. I therefore went ahead 
with Captain Lyster to reconnoitre. On coming to an 
abrupt turn in the river, about three miles higher, we 
found ourselves suddenly in front of the position, which 
consisted of two stockaded forts of eight and three guns 
each, commanding the reach. About 200 yards below the 
forts was a boom across the river, apparently well con- 
structed. The forts appeared to us to stand on a tongue 
of land, from which we were separated by the river, which 
at that point divided into two branches, and the pilots de- 
clared such to be the case ; that turning to the right we 
observed was still further defended by a floating battery. 
There appeared, therefore, to be no means of carrying the 
position but by forcing the boom. 

On rejoining the force, arrangements were made fear 
the gun-boats to advance to the boom, to cover the party 
appointed to cut through it, the remainder of the force 
to hold themselves in readiness to act when ordered. We 
had approached the boom to within one hundred yards, 
when a flag of truce was observed to be coming towards 
us. Conceiving the object of the enemy was merely to 



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296 ADMIRAL COCHRANE'S 

gain time, I sent back a message, ' that unless Scheriff 
Osman came to me in half an hour, I should open fire.' 
This being conveyed to the fort, the flag returned with an 
offer to admit me with two boats, that I might visit the 
Scheriff. I declined, and the flag retired ; the moment it 
was clear of the line of fire the three-gun battery opened, 
and the cannonade became general on both sides. 

The boom was composed of two large-sized trees, 
each supporting a chain cable, equal to 10 or 12 inches, 
firmly bolted and secured around the trunk of a tree on 
each bank; a cut in the right bank allowed a canoe to 
pass, but was impassable to any of our boats. 

One hour nearly elapsed before we could in any way 
remove the obstacle, during which time the fire of the 
enemy was well sustained, all the guns being laid for the 
boom. I need hardly mention it was briskly returned 
from our side, both from guns and small arms ; and some 
rockets well thrown by a party which had been landed on 
the right bank, appeared to produce considerable effect. 

As soon as the passage was open for the smaller 
boats, they passed through rapidly, and embarked the 
marines from the large boats across the boom ; ultimately 
the whole force passed through. The enemy immediately 
quitted their defences, and fled in every direction. The 
marines and small-arm men having cleared the town, the 
marines were formed as a covering party, and parties of 
seamen were pushed up both banks of the river, but met 
with no opposition; at the same time preparations were 
made for spiking the guns and destroying the stockades 
and town ; in a short time these were completed, and the 
whole in flames, as well as three large proas, and several 
smaller ones. 

Being anxious to save the tide, and conceiving that 
the object contemplated by your Excellency was accom- 



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Appendix III.] DESPATCHES. 297 

plished, I ordered the force to be re-embarked, and pro- 
ceeded down the river to the Vixen. 

When your Excellency considers the strength of the 
enemy's position, and the obvious state of preparation in 
which we found him, you will be prepared to learn that 
this service has not been performed without considerable 
loss. I regret very much to state it at six killed and fifteen 
wounded. The loss on the part of the enemy was unques- 
tionably very great; but the surrounding jungle afforded 
the enemy the means of carrying away their dead, accord- 
ing to their custom in such cases. Nevertheless, some of 
those left on the field we recognised as persons of consi- 
derable influence. 

Whilst I record my admiration of the gallantry and 
steadiness of the whole force under a galling fire, sustained 
for a long period, I must particularly mention Captain 
Lyster, who directed his attention to the boom, and by 
whose personal exertions that obstacle was overcome. 

Mr. Gibbard, mate of her Majesty's ship Wolverine, 
was, I grieve to say, mortally wounded by an early shot, 
when gallantly working at the boom with an axe. 

I beg leave to point out to your Excellency the con- 
duct of Mr. Williamson, Malay interpreter to Mr. Brooke; 
he was with me during the attack, and was exposed to 
the whole of the fire. 

I have, &c, 

Charles Talbot, Captain. 

His Excellency Rear- Admiral Sir Thomas Cooheanb, C.B. 
Commander-in-Chief. 



VOL. II. 



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298 ADMIRAL COCHRANE'S 

Detail of the naval force employed in the attack on and 
the destruction of Maloodoo, under the command of 
Captain Charles Talbot, Her Majesty's Ship Festal, on 
the 19th day of August, 1845. 

Her Majesty's ship Agincourt's gig, Captain Lyster; 
Mr. Creswell, midshipman; one petty officer, and five 
seamen. 

Gun-boat (launch), Lieut. Lowther; Mr. Whepple, 
assistant-surgeon ; Mr. Burnaby, midshipman ; Mr. Barton, 
midshipman; 1 petty officer, and 18 seamen. 

Gun-boat (barge), Lieut. Paynter; Mr. May, mate; 
Mr. Patrick, assistant-surgeon; 1 petty officer, and 14 
seamen. 

(Pinnace, with rockets), Mr. Reeve, mate; 3 petty 
officers, and 18 seamen. 

(Cutter), Mr. Simcoe, midshipman; 11 seamen. 

Gun-boat, manned from Agincourt, Hon. East India 
Company's steam-vessel Nemesis, with 1st company small- 
armed men (1st cutter), Lieut. Reid; Mr. Hathorn, mid- 
shipman ; 1 petty officer, and 10 seamen. 

Gun-boat (2d cutter), Mr. Young, mate ; 1 petty offi- 
cer, and 10 seamen. 

Gun-boat, with Agincourt's field-piece men, Pluto's 
(cutter), Lieut. Heard ; 2 petty officers, and 15 men. 

Her Majesty's ship Vestal's (barge), Lieut. Morritt, 
senior lieutenant; gun-boat, Mr. Pym, second master; 1 
petty officer, and 13 seamen. 

(Pinnace), Lieutenant Pasco; Mr. Ward, assistant- 
surgeon; Mr. Sanders, midshipman; 1 petty officer, and 
13 men. 

Her Majesty's ship Vestal's gun-boat (cutter), Mr. 
Durbin, mate ; 11 seamen; (gig), Mr. Ecles, clerk, 5 sea- 
men. 



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Appendix III.] DESPATCHES. 299 

Her Majesty's ship Daedalus, gun-boat (launch), Mr. 
Wilkinson, second master ; 1 petty officer, and 18 sea- 
men; (barge), Lieut. Randolph, senior lieutenant; Mr. 
Huxham, midshipman ; 2 petty officers, and 17 seamen ; 
(pinnace), Mr. Nolloth, mate; Mr. Balcomb, midship- 
man ; 1 petty officer, and 12 seamen ; (cutter), Mr. Pro- 
theroe, midshipman ; 1 petty officer, and 8 seamen. 

Her Majesty's steam-vessel Vixen's gun-boat (pin- 
nace), Lieut. Wilcox, senior lieutenant ; Mr. Dent, mate ; 
1 petty officer, and IS men ; (first cutter), Mr. W. Sains- 
bury, midshipman ; 9 seamen ; (second cutter), Lieut 
Bonham ; 1 1 seamen. 

Her Majesty's sloop Cruiser's gun-boat (pinnace), 
Lieut. Rodney, senior lieutenant; Mr. Cotter, midship- 
man ; 1 petty officer, and 12 men ; (gig), Commander 
Fanshawe; 1 petty officer, and 4 seamen; (cutter), Mr. 
Tuke, midshipman ; 1 petty officer, and 8 seamen. 

Her Majesty's sloop Wolverine's (pinnace), Lieut. 
Hillier, senior lieutenant; Mr. Johnson, midshipman; 1 
petty officer, and \2 seamen ; (gig), Commander Clifford ; 
1 petty officer, and 4 seamen ; (cutter), Mr. Gibbard, 
mate ; 1 petty officer, and 4 men. 

Abstract of the foregoing detail. 

Agincourt — officers, IS; petty officers, 10; seamen, 
99. Total, 124. 

Vestal — officers, 8 ; petty officers, 2 ; seamen, 42. 
Total, 52. 

Daedalus — officers, 6; petty officers, 5; seamen, 55. 
Total, 66. 

Vixen — officers, 4 ; petty officers, 1 ; seamen, 35. 

Total, 40. 

Cruiser — officers, 4; petty officers, 3j seamen, 24. 
Total, 31. 



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800 ADMIRAL COCHRANe's DESPATCHES. 

Wolverine — officers, 4 ; petty officers, 3 ; seamen, 24. 
Total, 81. 

Grand total — officers, 41 ; petty officers, 24 ; seamen, 
279. Total, 344. 

Royal Marines employed. 

Captain Hawkins, her Majesty's ship Agincourt. 
Lieut. Hambly, her Majesty's ship Daedalus. 
Lieut. Dyer, her Majesty's ship Vestal. 
Lieut. Kennedy, her Majesty's ship Agincourt. 
Lieut. Mansell, her Majesty's ship Agincourt. 
Eight sergeants, 8 corporals, 3 fifers, 178 privates. 

Abstract. 

Captain, I ; lieutenants, 4 ; sergeants, 8 ; corporals, 
8; fifers, 3; privates, 178. Total, 202. 

Total number of seamen, 344; marines, 202. 
Grand total, 546. 

Chablbs Talbot, 

Captain Her Majesty's ship Vestal. 



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No. IV. 

Memoir of Lieutenant Wade. 

Lieutenant Charles Francis Wade, 1 whose melan- 
choly death is recorded in these pages, was the third son 
of the Rev. Thomas Wade of the county of Tipperary, and 
from an early period of life displayed a strong predilection 
for that profession in which Providence ordained that he 
should pass a short, yet honourable career. His family 
did not encourage this disposition, having no interest to 
ensure its successful enterprise ; but the youth, when in 
London, having casually heard that the late Earl of Hun- 
tingdon was about to proceed to the West Indies, in com- 
mand of H.M.S. Valorous, immediately waited upon his 
lordship, and volunteered his services. . Though he had 
no previous acquaintance nor introduction, the frankness 
of his manners, and the good sense he exhibited at the 
boyish age of fourteen, so won upon the noble earl, that 
he at once became his patron and friend, and he was 

1 The previous career of my lamented shipmate, Lieutenant 
Wade, was so full of honour, and so exemplary of the Nelson 
spirit — the glory and means of glory to the British navy, and of 
safety to the British nation — that I trust I may be excused in 
devoting a few pages of my book to his memory. My informa- 
tion is derived from officers under whom and companions with 
whom he served, and who admired and loved him : and had it 
pleased God to spare his life, and opportunity had been afforded 
him, he must have left the heroic name of a very distinguished 
man. — H. K. 



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302 MEMOIR OF LIEUT. WADE. 

appointed to the Valorous, and sailed in her on her des- 
tination. On her being ordered home, he was transferred 
to the Barhara, flag-ship on the West India station ; and 
by his good conduct strongly recommended himself to 
her commander, the Honourable Elphinstone Fleming, to 
whom, as well as to Lord Huntingdon, he expressed his 
grateful attachment through life. At a later time, whilst 
he was serving as mate on board H.M.S. Ocean at Sheer- 
ness, it was suggested to him by several of his naval 
friends, that he might distinguish himself by joining the 
British Legion in Spain : he accordingly accepted the rank 
of captain of artillery in the British Legion under Colonel 
Colquhoun, R.A. 

In 1837 he returned from this employment, after two 
years' gallant devotion to it, and memorialised the govern- 
ment for promotion in the navy as a reward for his ser- 
vices. In this he respectfully represented his meritorious 
actions in common with the navy at sea and the marines 
and other forces in the field, with both of which he had 
fought in several very sharp engagements; in honour of 
which he had received the Spanish crosses of St. Ferdinand 
and Isabella Catolica, and a gold medal for commanding 
the guns which breached the walls of the town of Iran, 
through which a party of troops entered, and under so 
heavy a fire, that he had two-thirds of his gun -detach- 
ment killed and wounded. In short, his conduct through- 
out was of the most gallant description, though a slight 
wound was the only mark he bore of having fought in 
almost every affair between the Legion and the Carlists 
during the period of his stay. His preceding eight years 
in the West Indies, his having been afloat from 1824 to 
1835, and his having passed his examination for a lieu- 
tenant in 1830, with a high character from every officer 
under whom he had served, were truly urged as a farther 



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Appendix IV.] MEMOIR OP LIEUT. WADE. 303 

title to the favour he solicited. Lord Minto, then First 
Lord of the Admiralty, consequently appointed him to the 
Rhadamanthus in the Mediterranean; and in the June 
following, at the coronation of her Majesty, he obtained 
his commission as lieutenant. In 1840 he joined H.M.S. 
Curacoa in the Pacific ; and here an incident occurred which 
may serve to shew the intrepid and chivalrous temper 
which formed so distinguished a feature in his character. 
Cruising not far from the southern tropic, and a few 
leagues from the meridian of the island that became 
the refuge of the descendants of Christian and his com- 
rades, another island was seen, which was thought to be 
a discovery. The nature of the shore and the sea that 
broke against it forbade any attempt at landing from a 
boat, but access to a swimmer seemed possible ; and it 
being considered desirable that the new-found territory 
should be examined and possession of it taken, Lieutenant 
Wade volunteered to perform this service, and to swim on 
shore with the union-jack secured to him. He succeeded 
in landing, explored the island sufficiently to ascertain that 
it had neither inhabitants nor shipwrecked mariners upon 
it, and that it had already been visited by a British ship 
of war. He then returned safely on board ; but the conse- 
quences of the adventure were serious, for it was followed 
by a severe attack of rheumatic fever, occasioned by having 
remained so long in wet clothes ; and finding there was no 
hope of regaining his health at sea, he quitted his ship, 
with regret, at San Bias, and returned through Mexico to 
England. 

In December 1842, hardly recovered from the effects 
of the disease, but determined to deserve and to obtain 
promotion, he was appointed first lieutenant of the Sama- 
rang, then fitting for the survey of the Indian Seas. In 
March 1844 he joined for a short time H.M.S. Driver; 



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304 MEMOIR OF LIEUT. WADE. 

and on the 5th June following was appointed first lieu- 
tenant of the Dido. 

It is not easy to express in adequate language, says 
one who knew him intimately, the qualities by which poor 
Wade was distinguished, and how much he was beloved by 
all his acquaintance. Brave and enterprising, yet gentle, 
affectionate, and considerate of others ; firm in principle, 
and exact in the performance of every duty, but unpre- 
tending, generous, and loyal; there seemed to be united 
in him all the properties which, joined to skill in his pro- 
fession, would have ensured to him an eminent place in 
the brilliant annals of his service. But he was of those 
who fall in the front, and who die too soon for their own 
glory. 

To his family and intimate friends his amiable, gene- 
rous, and affectionate manners endear his memory ; and 
although they must mourn his loss, yet they have the con- 
solation of knowing that his whole conduct was influenced 
by a sincere Christian spirit, and that he was not less 
willing to devote his life to the service of his country 
than to manifest in his whole conduct the exalted princi- 
ples by which he was ever influenced. 



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No.V. 

Memoir of Mr. George Steward. 

The late George Steward, who fell in August 1844, whilst 
fighting as a volunteer in the expedition against the 
pirates of Borneo, commanded by Captain Keppel, was the 
youngest of seven children of the late Timothy Steward, 
Esq. of Yarmouth. Having shewn an early predilection 
for the sea, a midshipman's berth was procured for him 
in the maritime service of the Honourable East India 
Company, in which he rose with as much rapidity as its 
regulations would admit ; but unfortunately for him, pre- 
cisely at the period when he became eligible for, and had 
secured, the command of a first-class ship, the act of par- 
liament was passed which abolished the mercantile privi- 
leges, and consequently extinguished the maritime service, 
of the Honourable East India Company, whose officers 
thereupon retired on pensions. Not being disposed to 
continue at sea as a private adventurer, Mr. Steward 
remained unemployed for several years ; but in 1842 his 
adventurous and daring spirit led him to embrace the 
proposition of his friend and brother-officer, Mr. Henry 
Wise, now connected with the East India and China trade, 
to undertake the charge of a commercial expedition to 
the infant settlement established at Sarawak under the 
auspices of Mr. Brooke. In the month of March 1843 
he left England in the Ariel, a smart fast-sailing brig, 
purchased, fitted out, and armed by himself and Mr. Wise, 



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306 MEMOIR OF MR. STEWARD. 

in pursuance of the mercantile operation referred to, and 
for the additional security of Mr. Brooke. The vessel 
arrived at Singapore in the following July. Here Mr. 
Steward was informed that the Borneo Seas were swarm- 
ing with pirates ; and the master of the brig having left 
her at that port, Mr. Steward assumed the command. 
On his arrival at Sarawak, he received from Mr. Brooke 
a welcome, the cordiality of which was enhanced by their 
recognising each other as schoolfellows. Of the enter- 
prise, intelligence, liberal mind, and friendly disposition 
of Mr. Brooke, Mr. Steward has, in his correspondence, 
spoken with the utmost warmth, and to him he was 
at all times indebted for much valuable assistance and 
counsel. At Sarawak Mr. Steward remained until he 
unfortunately joined the expedition against the pirates, 
in which his life was sacrificed. In his last letter to 
England he spoke, fearlessly, of an expected descent of 
the pirates, of having fortified his iron house, and of the 
anticipated and much-desired visit of H.M.S. Dido to 
that settlement. The subsequent acts of his career are 
related by Captain Keppel. 



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No. VI. 
Extracts from the late Mr. Williamson 9 s Journal. 

In October 1845, Mr. Brooke commissioned some of the 
European gentlemen of his party to make a tour of in- 
spection through the outlying Dyak tribes dependent on 
Sarawak, for the purpose of ascertaining their condition 
and prospects, and taking steps for the redress of any 
grievances of which they might have to complain. A few 
extracts from the rough journal kept on that occasion by 
Mr. Williamson may not be uninteresting to the reader, 
as shewing what a large measure of success had already 
, attended Mr. Brooke's wise and earnest efforts to restore 
peace and plenty to the poor persecuted Dyaks; what 
incessant vigilance on his part was still requisite to check 
the inveterate propensity of the knavish Malays to plunder 
and oppress them ; and with what well-directed activity 
he pursues his labours for the physical welfare and the 
moral regeneration of his subjects and neighbours. 

" Wednesday, Oct. 8th. — At 11 a.m. arrived at Pan- 
kalum Bunting, where we found about thirty Dyaks in a 
small hut ready to welcome us, and carry our luggage up 
to the village. At one o'clock started for the Bakar vil- 
lage, about five miles from the landing place, at the foot 
of the Sadong hills. This tribe consists of one hundred 
families, occupying four villages. There are about twenty- 
five houses in Mungu Babi (i. e. Hog Hill), the village 
where we are at present, and five padi stores. It is 



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308 EXTRACTS FROM 

very recently that the Dyaks have ventured to store their 
padi in houses. At 8 p.m. attended the feast given in 
our honour, where we saw the women dancing; they 
appeared very happy, and pleased to see us. 

" 9th. — This morning we had all the Orang Kayas of 
the four villages, who informed me they were very com- 
fortable and happy. I told them the object of my 
mission, at which they all seemed pleased, and said that 
if they were oppressed, they would come to Sarawak and 
complain to the Tuan Besar. When I asked them about 
the Sadong Dyaks, they said I should hear all when I met 
them, as they will hide nothing from me. 

" The only thing these Dyaks complain of is, that 
Nakodah Mahomed told them he had the Tuan Besar's 
chop,, and gave them to understand that the powder, 
muskets, &c, in his possession, belonged to the Tuan 
Besar ; in consequence of which they carried these goods 
for Nakodah Mahomed without receiving any payment for 
their labour. I told them that in future they need not carry 
goods for any man coming from Sarawak, or elsewhere, 
without due payment in ready money; and that should 
traders at any time leave their goods in the Dyak houses, 
they need not be alarmed, but bring the goods to the 
Tuan Besar, and tell him how they were left behind. 
They further told me that the Siringi wish to claim their 
siri cave, where they get their birds-nests, which is close 
to Kumpung, and has belonged to them as long as they 
can remember ; that this cave is a whole day's journey 
from Siring — how, then, can it belong .to the Siringi? 
I answered, that on my return the Tuan Besar would 
set the matter right, and give the cave to its proper 
owners. 

"Same day. — Proceeded to Jinan, about eight miles 
distant. There are here fifteen houses, and the Dyaks 



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Appendix VI.] MR. WILLIAMSON^ JOURNAL. 309 

are very comfortable, having plenty of grain, and. being 
well off for sugar-cane, sweet potatoes, plantains, betel- 
nut, besides various other fruit-trees. The houses here, 
as at Mungu Babi, are very shabby. 

" 10th. — This morning met Orang Kaya Kusunan, 
who told me the Toup Dyaks were waiting half way to 
receive us. At 4 p.m. I had the Orang Kaya Tumangong 
of Toup, and the Orang Kaya of Kurran, Si Labi, Si 
Mabong, Daah, Bugu (Sadong tribes), and the Orang 
Kaya Pasunan, besides other Dyaks, the Bandar Cassim, 
with his Sadong Malays, and our own people, at the house 
where I was staying. I explained my mission to them, 
and made them understand that, at the Bandar's express 
wish, the Tuan Besar had sent me to them to ascertain 
their condition. The Bandar then told them it was his. 
wish to institute the same laws and customs as at Sarawak ; 
after which, I informed the Dyaks that there will be no 
more forcing of goods on them at exorbitant prices ; and 
that for the future, should any one 'serra' them, they 
must complain to the Bandar, and subsequently lay their 
case before Mr. Brooke. The conference, I am glad to 
say, ended to every one's satisfaction. 

" At 8 p.m. the Orang Kaya Rih and two others of the 
same tribe complained to me of their grievances, and told 
me that Si Tore, a Sadong man, had forced 10 pieces of 
iron, weighing 15 catties, on them about two years and 
a half ago, and that he now demanded 100 pasus of padi 
for it. (This is serra with a vengeance : 100 pasus are 
equal to %\ tons weight!) They had paid 10 pasus; 
should they, they asked me, pay the rest ? I told them I 
would settle the business at Bandar Cassim's village. 

" llth. — The Dyaks gave us a feast last night; the 
women danced, and the merriment was kept up till morn- 
ing. At 11 started in boats with Bandar Cassim, and at 



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310 EXTRACTS FROM 

2 p.m. arrived at his village called * * *, 1 where every 
thing had been got ready for our reception ; a house was 
well fitted with gay curtains and mats, and after a salute 
of three guns as we approached, we took up our residence 
and made ourselves very comfortable. At 7 in the even- 
ing we met all the respectable part of the community of 
this little Malay village. I told them what I was sent 
for, the Bandar as usual giving way to our wishes, and 
repeating that Sarawak and Sadong, and Sadong and 
Sarawak, were as one country. I told Si Tore, Sebi Gani, 
and Sirdeen, that they must make no further demands on 
the Rih Dyaks, and that neither they nor any body else 
could serra the Dyaks any longer — not even the Bandar 
himself; for they must recollect that the Sadong Dyaks 
would take refuge in Sarawak if oppressed. 

" After the Bandar had left, the brother-in-law of the 
Orang Kaya of Sinkaru, together with the Orang Kaya of 
Si Nankau Kujang, and Orang Kaya Kurang, came to me. 
The former of these complained that Abang Tahar (the 
old Patingi's son-in-law), about two years ago, forced a 
small tatawak 2 and one brass dish on them, for which he 
demanded three Dyaks as slaves, whom he seized at the 
time and took away, and that now he demanded another 
Dyak boy. I replied, they were on no account to 
comply, that they must complain to the Bandar ; and if 
he took no notice of it, to go to Sarawak to the Tuan 
Besar. 

" The Orang Kaya likewise told me that formerly there 
were twenty-five families in his tribe, but now they were 
reduced to fifteen* the rest having been seized and sold 
into slavery I* (Here follow other complaints. The day's 

1 The ms. having been under water in the wreck of the 
Great Liverpool steamer, this name and some others are illegible. 

2 A sort of gong. 



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Appendix VI.] MR. WILLIAMSON'S JOURNAL 311 

journal concludes thus:) The Sinkaru Dyaks have not 
yet returned to their former Tumbawong, 1 but are scat- 
tered about in the jungle, and very poorly off. I told 
them to return to their former place of residence, and to 
collect the tribes there. 

" Sunday, 12th. — Orang Kaya Si Rubin and Orang Kaya 
Signa Mantay, of Rubin, likewise came to me to say that 
they were scattered, some at * * *, some at Bedope, and 
some at Rubin, and all badly off for grain. When col- 
lected, they have about thirty families, formerly they had 
about fifty. Those missing had mostly been seized and 
made slaves. At 1 l h 30 m we started for * * * (part of 
Rubin tribe), where we arrived about half-past two. We 
found one house with five families in it, and a Pangah 3 
attached. Pa Rigan, the * * * of this tribe, told me that 
Abang Tahar, Abang Ally, Abang Bakar, &c. &c. (all of 
Gadong, under Patingi Miiel), demand from the Dyaks 
old serras, which have been paid long ago. Dangon, a 
Sirkaru Dyak, told me that Abang Tahar, a short time 
since, demanded from his tribe a Dyak boy, and four 
Dyak boys from the En Singi Dyaks. Bandar Cassim 
put a stop to these demands at the time, but he has re- 
vived them since. The Malays of Sadong, whenever they 
go among the Dyaks, seize their fowls, eggs, rice, cocoa- 
nuts, and all sorts of property. The Bandar tells me he 
never permits these people to go amongst the Dyaks, but 
that they do it by stealth over land, and that the Tuan 
Besar must do something to prevent them from oppress- 
ing and frightening the Dyaks. (Here follow other com- 
plaints against the Gadong people, after which the journal 
continues.) 

1 Tumbawong is a place they have deserted, or been forced to 
quit. 

2 A head-house. 



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312 EXTRACTS FROM 

" 13th. — Girang, a Bedope Dyak of the Rubin tribe, 
told me how very much he is bullied and troubled by the 
Gadong people, who are constantly threatening to attack 
him. I advised him to collect the tribe at Rubin, their 
old Tumbawong. At 7 started back for the Bandar's 
village, where we arrived at 10 o'clock. After a bath and 
breakfast, the Bandar's mother came to me with a present 
of two sarongs, one for the Tuan Besar and one for 
myself, and begged that I would urge the Tuan Besar to 
take care of the Bandar as if he were his own son, and 
not to cast him off. I told her that Mr. Brooke would 
support the Bandar as long as he conducted himself pro- 
perly. The Orang Kaya Baga, Orang Kaya Sinching of 
Milikin, * * * of En Tayen, Orang Kaya Laja of Rah- 
mone, Orang Kaya Rinjou of Sirkaru, Orang Kaya Mior 
Muntah, Pangara Lilli of Bunan, Orang Kaya Nijou of 
Mapuh, Orang Kapa Ganggong of En Kelas, and Pangara 
Achong of En Singi, all met me. I told them the object 
of my mission in presence of the Bandar and several other 
Malays, and they were highly delighted. They asked me 
to allow the Bandar to govern them, as they are much 
troubled by the Gadong people. Abang Tahar lately de- 
manded four Dyak boys of Pangara Achong, and two 
from the Orang Kaya of Sirkaru ; besides which, the 
Sadong people seize their property whenever they go 
amongst them. They are very poorly off for grain. They 
asked me for a letter which should prevent people from 
annoying them. I told them I should represent the matter 
to the Tuan Besar, and that no doubt he will give his 
chop to each tribe. They all speak well of Bandar 
Cassim; but his people are bad, and those at Gadong 1 
are worse. 

1 Gadong is a small Malay village on the Sadong, consider- 
ably nearer the sea than the Bandar's village. 



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Appendix VI.] MR. WILLIAMSON^ JOURNAL. 313 

" Hth. — At 6 h 30* started up the river Kayan to- 
wards Tumma, having left Talip with nineteen men to re- 
turn to Sarawak by way of Samarahan. At 8 we stopped 
at Mang-gariit, where the Dyaks presented us with a deer 
they had caught. These Dyaks are badly off for grain, 
and it is the same tribe Bandar Cassim attacked in the 
Goa Siri (siri cave) some few years ago. Orang Kaya 
Pa Jampat told me, that on that occasion the Bandar 
seized eight Dyaks and took them with him. 1 The river 
here begins to be narrow and shallow, with pebbly banks, 
and clear water. At noon we stopped at Muara Rubin, 
where we intended to stay a day to inquire for coal, 
which was stated to have been found in this neighbour- 
hood ; but as nobody knew the whereabouts, and as the 
Hindoo remains (said to consist of one stone in the shape 
of a Malay hat) were five hours out of our way, we con- 
tinued our route till evening, having parted company 
with the Bandar at Muara Rubin, as I well knew the 
Tumma Dyaks would be afraid of his approach. 

" 15th. — At daylight started towards Tumma, and at 9 
stopped below Muora Sangan, where we breakfasted, after 
which we pushed up again, and at 1 arrived at Si Sijack, 
where the Tumma are. Orang Kaya Pa Muany, the chief, 
told me they were very much bullied, as a Sarawak man, 
named Pakar, and Marrat, the father-in-law of Bandar 
Mulana of Sarawak, forced upon them a quantity of 
goods in the name of the Tuan Besar and the Bandar 
Mulana. (Here follows a list of things, such as gongs, 
tatawaks, jackets, handkerchiefs, and the like, with the 
most exorbitant prices affixed to them. The rice and 
padi had not, however, been paid for.) There are three 
villages of this tribe ; two about 250 yards apart ; one of 

1 This occurred during Seriff Sahib's time ; the Dyaks were 
frightfully oppressed. 

VOL. II. Y 



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314 EXTRACTS FROM 

which, containing about ten families, is ruled by the 
Orang Kaya Pa Muany, and the other, with about thirty 
families, by the Orang Kaya Mayo and the Orang Kaya 
Pa Balet. In the other village, about three reaches above, 
is the Orang Kaya Pa Magong, with ten families. They 
said they were very comfortable under the Patingi Ali 
(father of the present Bandar Mulana), but that since 
Bandar Mulana has succeeded, they have been oppressed. 
They told me they had run away from Sadong because 
they heard the Tuan Besar was a just and good Rajah, 
and that all his Dyaks were comfortable, but now they 
are oppressed. Pakar told them that if they did not take 
his tatawaks they must not remain here, but run away ! 

" There are forty families of the Si Nangkan Soyar tribe, 
and thirteen families of the Tibader tribe. The Orang 
Kayas told me that, had I not arrived, the rice in payment 
of the goods forced on them would have been taken down, 
as Pakar was here hurrying them to carry it to Sanar ; 
but that when he heard of my coming, he could not be 
persuaded to wait and meet me. The following gcods 
have just been returned by the Gregan Dyaks (here fol- 
lows a long list of goods and prices). Pangara Achong of 
the En Singi tribe told me that he has one family of his 
tribe at Gregan, and he wanted them to return with him. 
I asked the Pangara of Gregan whether this family wished 
to return, but he did not know. I then told them no one 
could force them, but that they might do just as they 
pleased. The Orang Kaya Pa Jampat goes down with 
me to Kuching to lay before the Tuan Besar a claim made 
upon him by the Malay Pangeran of Samarahan. Besides 
which, I take down the Orang Kaya and Pangara of 
Tumma, Si Markan Singan and Tebadu, together with 
all the goods forced on them, that the case may be judged 
by the Tuan Besar. 



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Appendix VI.] MR. WILLIAMSON^ JOURNAL. 315 

" Bandar Cassim demands a debt of the Orang Kaya Pa 
Muany of Tumma ; he originally sold them (i . e. forced on 
them, of course) a gong for 150 pasus of padi, 100 of 
which was paid ; and the question is, whether they were 
to pay the rest. This was four years ago. I left it for the 
Tuan Besar's decision." (Here follows a list of goods 
forced on the Tebadu Dyaks.) 1 

1 The goods brought down by Mr. Williamson were on a 
public trial confiscated, and the parties concerned fined. These 
Dyaks, from their distance and timidity, were afraid to complain, 
but will in future not be imposed upon. It would be a hopeless 
task trying to prevent the Malays playing their tricks on the 
Dyaks; and the only chance of freeing the Dyaks from these 
exactions is by inspiring them with confidence. In Sarawak 
this has been done, and may easily be extended ; for the Dyak, 
though greatly depressed by a course of persecution, I have 
always found ready to state his complaints whenever he has a 
hope of redress. The Orang Kaya Pa Jampat of Mang-garut 
was freed of the debt claimed by the Samarahan Pangara ; and 
the other complaints referred to my decision have been either 
rectified, or steps taken to do justice, and to render the Dyak 
tribes of Sadong happy and easy. — Note by Mr. Brooke. 



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